Jimmy Carter

In this article, we are going to thoroughly explore and analyze Jimmy Carter. From its origins to its evolution in today's society, Jimmy Carter has played a crucial role in various aspects of daily life. Over the years, Jimmy Carter has been the subject of debate, study and even admiration, generating a wide variety of opinions and perspectives on its meaning and relevance. Through this research, we aim to shed light on the different aspects of Jimmy Carter, examining its impact on culture, politics, science and other areas of interest. Thus, we hope to provide a comprehensive and insightful view on Jimmy Carter, in order to enrich the understanding and appreciation of this topic.

Jimmy Carter
Portrait of Jimmy Carter in a dark blue suit
Official portrait, 1978
39th President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
Vice PresidentWalter Mondale
Preceded byGerald Ford
Succeeded byRonald Reagan
76th Governor of Georgia
In office
January 12, 1971 – January 14, 1975
LieutenantLester Maddox
Preceded byLester Maddox
Succeeded byGeorge Busbee
Member of the Georgia State Senate
from the 14th district
In office
January 14, 1963 – January 9, 1967
Preceded byDistrict established
Succeeded byHugh Carter
Personal details
Born
James Earl Carter Jr.

(1924-10-01) October 1, 1924 (age 99)
Plains, Georgia, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse
(m. 1946; died 2023)
Children4, including Jack and Amy
Parents
RelativesCarter family
EducationUnited States Naval Academy (BS)
Civilian awardsFull list
SignatureCursive signature in ink
Military service
Branch/serviceUnited States Navy
Years of service
  • 1946–1953 (active)
  • 1953–1961 (reserve)
RankLieutenant
Military awards

James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician and humanitarian who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party, Carter was the 76th governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975, and a Georgia state senator from 1963 to 1967. At age 99, he is both the oldest living former U.S. president and the longest-lived president in U.S. history.

Carter was born and raised in Plains, Georgia. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1946 and joined the U.S. Navy's submarine service. Carter returned home afterward and revived his family's peanut-growing business. Opposing racial segregation, Carter supported the growing civil rights movement, and became an activist within the Democratic Party. He served in the Georgia State Senate from 1963 to 1967 and then as governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975. As a dark-horse candidate not well known outside of Georgia, Carter won the Democratic nomination and narrowly defeated the incumbent Republican Party president Gerald Ford in the 1976 presidential election.

Carter pardoned all Vietnam War draft evaders on his second day in office. He created a national energy policy that included conservation, price control, and new technology. Carter successfully pursued the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties, and the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. He also confronted stagflation. His administration established the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Education. The end of his presidency was marked by the Iran hostage crisis, an energy crisis, the Three Mile Island accident, the Nicaraguan Revolution, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In response to the invasion, Carter escalated the Cold War by ending détente, imposing a grain embargo against the Soviets, enunciating the Carter Doctrine, and leading the multinational boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. He lost the 1980 presidential election in a landslide to Ronald Reagan, the Republican nominee.

After leaving the presidency, Carter established the Carter Center to promote and expand human rights; in 2002 he received a Nobel Peace Prize for his work related to it. He traveled extensively to conduct peace negotiations, monitor elections, and further the eradication of infectious diseases. Carter is a key figure in the nonprofit housing organization Habitat for Humanity. He has also written numerous books, ranging from political memoirs to poetry, while continuing to comment on global affairs, including two books on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, in which he criticizes Israel's treatment of Palestinians as apartheid. Polls of historians and political scientists generally rank Carter as a below-average president, although both scholars and the public view his post-presidential activities more favorably. At 43 years, Carter's post-presidency is the longest in U.S. history.

Early life

A rural storehouse with a small windmill next to it
The Carter family store, part of Carter's Boyhood Farm, in Plains, Georgia

James Earl Carter Jr. was born October 1, 1924, in Plains, Georgia, at the Wise Sanitarium, where his mother worked as a registered nurse. Carter thus became the first American president born in a hospital. He is the eldest child of Bessie Lillian Gordy and James Earl Carter Sr.,: 70  and a descendant of English immigrant Thomas Carter, who settled in the Colony of Virginia in 1635. Numerous generations of Carters lived as cotton farmers in Georgia. Plains was a boomtown of 600 people at the time of Carter's birth. His father was a successful local businessman, who ran a general store and was an investor in farmland. Carter's father had previously served as a reserve second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps during World War I.

During Carter's infancy, his family moved several times, settling on a dirt road in nearby Archery, which was almost entirely populated by impoverished African American families. His family eventually had three more children: Gloria, Ruth, and Billy. He got along well with his parents. His mother was often absent during his childhood, working long hours. Although his father was staunchly pro-segregation, he allowed Jimmy to befriend the black farmhands' children. Carter was an enterprising teenager who was given his own acre of Earl's farmland, where he grew, packaged, and sold peanuts. He also rented out a section of tenant housing that he had purchased.

Education

Carter attended Plains High School from 1937 to 1941, graduating from the eleventh grade, since the school did not have a twelfth grade. By that time, Archery and Plains had been impoverished by the Great Depression, but the family benefited from New Deal farming subsidies, and Carter's father took a position as a community leader. Carter himself was a diligent student with a fondness for reading.: 8  A popular anecdote holds that he was passed over for valedictorian after he and his friends skipped school to venture downtown in a hot rod. Carter's truancy was mentioned in a local newspaper, although it is not clear he would have otherwise been valedictorian. As an adolescent, Carter played on the Plains High School basketball team, and also joined Future Farmers of America, which helped him develop a lifelong interest in woodworking.

Carter had long dreamed of attending the United States Naval Academy. In 1941, he started undergraduate coursework in engineering at Georgia Southwestern College in nearby Americus, Georgia.: 99  The next year, he transferred to the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, where civil rights icon Blake Van Leer was president. In 1943, he was admitted to the Naval Academy, from which he received a Bachelor of Science in 1946.: 38  He was a good student but seen as reserved and quiet, in contrast to the academy's culture of aggressive hazing of freshmen.: 62  While at the academy, Carter fell in love with Rosalynn Smith, a friend of his sister Ruth. The two wed shortly after his graduation in 1946, and were married until her death on November 19, 2023. He was a sprint football player for the Navy Midshipmen. Carter graduated 60th out of 821 midshipmen in the class of 1947 with a Bachelor of Science degree and was commissioned as an ensign.

Naval career

Carter with Rosalynn Smith and his mother at his graduation from the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, June 5, 1946

From 1946 to 1953, the Carters lived in Virginia, Hawaii, Connecticut, New York, and California, during his deployments in the Atlantic and Pacific fleets. In 1948, he began officer training for submarine duty and served aboard USS Pomfret. He was promoted to lieutenant junior grade in 1949, and his service aboard Pomfret included a simulated war patrol to the western Pacific and Chinese coast from January to March of that year. In 1951 he was assigned to the diesel/electric USS K-1 (SSK-1), qualified for command, and served in several positions, to include executive officer.

In 1952, he began an association with the Navy's fledgling nuclear submarine program, led then by captain Hyman G. Rickover. Rickover had high standards and demands for his men and machines, and Carter later said that, next to his parents, Rickover had the greatest influence on his life. He was sent to the Naval Reactors Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington, D.C. for three-month temporary duty, while Rosalynn moved with their children to Schenectady, New York.

On December 12, 1952, an accident with the experimental NRX reactor at Atomic Energy of Canada's Chalk River Laboratories caused a partial meltdown, resulting in millions of liters of radioactive water flooding the reactor building's basement. This left the reactor's core ruined. Carter was ordered to Chalk River to lead a U.S. maintenance crew that joined other American and Canadian service personnel to assist in the shutdown of the reactor. The painstaking process required each team member to don protective gear and be lowered individually into the reactor for 90 seconds at a time, limiting their exposure to radioactivity while they disassembled the crippled reactor. When Carter was lowered in, his job was simply to turn a single screw. During and after his presidency, Carter said that his experience at Chalk River had shaped his views on atomic energy and led him to cease development of a neutron bomb.

In March 1953, Carter began a six-month course in nuclear power plant operation at Union College in Schenectady. His intent was to eventually work aboard USS Seawolf, which was intended to be the second U.S. nuclear submarine. His plans changed when his father died of pancreatic cancer in July, two months before construction of Seawolf began, and Carter obtained a release from active duty so he could take over the family peanut business.: 100  Deciding to leave Schenectady proved difficult, as Rosalynn had grown comfortable with their life there. She said later that returning to small-town life in Plains seemed "a monumental step backward." Carter left active duty on October 9, 1953. He served in the inactive Navy Reserve until 1961, and left the service with the rank of lieutenant. His awards include the American Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, China Service Medal, and National Defense Service Medal. As a submarine officer he also earned the "dolphin" badge.

Farming

After debt settlements and division of his father's estate among its heirs, Jimmy inherited comparatively little. For a year, he, Rosalynn, and their three sons lived in public housing in Plains. Carter was knowledgeable in scientific and technological subjects, and he set out to expand the family's peanut-growing business. Transitioning from the Navy to an agri-businessman was difficult as his first-year harvest failed due to a drought, and Carter had to open several bank lines of credit to keep the farm afloat. Meanwhile, he took classes and studied agriculture while Rosalynn learned accounting to manage the business's books. Though they barely broke even the first year, the Carters grew the business and became quite successful.

Early political career (1963–1971)

Georgia state senator (1963–1967)

As racial tension inflamed in Plains by the 1954 Supreme Court of the United States ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, Carter favored racial tolerance and integration, but often kept those feelings to himself to avoid making enemies. By 1961, he began to speak more prominently of integration as a member of the Baptist Church and chairman of the Sumter County school board. In 1962, Carter announced his campaign for an open Georgia State Senate seat fifteen days before the election. Rosalynn, who had an instinct for politics and organization, was instrumental to his campaign. While early counting of the ballots showed Carter trailing his opponent Homer Moore, this was later proven to be the result of fraudulent voting. The fraud was found to have been orchestrated by Joe Hurst, the chairman of the Democratic Party in Quitman County. Carter challenged the election result, which was confirmed fraudulent in an investigation. Following this, another election was held, in which Carter won against Moore as the sole Democratic candidate, with a vote margin of 3,013 to 2,182.

The civil rights movement was well underway when Carter took office. He and his family had become staunch John F. Kennedy supporters. Carter remained relatively quiet on the issue at first, even as it polarized much of the county, to avoid alienating his segregationist colleagues. He did speak up on a few divisive issues, giving speeches against literacy tests and against an amendment to the Georgia Constitution which he felt implied a compulsion to practice religion. Carter entered the state Democratic Executive Committee two years into office, where he helped rewrite the state party's rules. He became the chairman of the West Central Georgia Planning and Development Commission, which oversaw the disbursement of federal and state grants for projects such as historic site restoration.

When Bo Callaway was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1964, Carter immediately began planning to challenge him. The two had previously clashed over which two-year college would be expanded to a four-year college program by the state, and Carter saw Callaway—who had switched to the Republican Party—as a rival who represented aspects of politics he despised. Carter was reelected to a second two-year term in the state Senate, where he chaired its Education Committee and sat on the Appropriations Committee toward the end of the term. He contributed to a bill expanding statewide education funding and getting Georgia Southwestern State University a four-year program. He leveraged his regional planning work, giving speeches around the district to make himself more visible to potential voters. On the last day of the term, Carter announced his candidacy for the House of Representatives. But Callaway decided to run for governor, and Carter changed his mind, deciding to run for governor too.

1966 and 1970 gubernatorial campaigns

In the 1966 gubernatorial election, Carter ran against liberal former governor Ellis Arnall and conservative segregationist Lester Maddox in the Democratic primary. In a press conference, he described his ideology as "Conservative, moderate, liberal and middle-of-the-road ... I believe I am a more complicated person than that." He lost the primary, but drew enough votes as a third-place candidate to force Arnall into a runoff election with Maddox, who narrowly defeated Arnall. In the general election, Republican nominee Callaway won a plurality of the vote, but less than a majority, allowing the Democratic-majority Georgia House of Representatives to elect Maddox as governor. This resulted in a victorious Maddox, whose victory—due to his segregationist stance—was seen as the worse outcome to the indebted Carter. Carter returned to his agriculture business, carefully planning his next campaign. This period was a spiritual turning point for Carter; he declared himself a born again Christian, and his last child Amy was born during this time.

In the 1970 gubernatorial election, liberal former governor Carl Sanders became Carter's main opponent in the Democratic primary. Carter ran a more modern campaign, employing printed graphics and statistical analysis. Responding to polls, he leaned more conservative than before, positioning himself as a populist and criticizing Sanders for both his wealth and perceived links to the national Democratic Party. He also accused Sanders of corruption, but when pressed by the media, did not provide evidence. Throughout his campaign, Carter sought both the black vote and the votes of those who had supported prominent Alabama segregationist George Wallace. While he met with black figures such as Martin Luther King Sr. and Andrew Young, and visited many Black-owned businesses, he also praised Wallace and promised to invite him to give a speech in Georgia. Carter's appeal to racism became more blatant over time, with his senior campaign aides handing out a photograph of Sanders celebrating with Black basketball players.

Carter came ahead of Sanders in the first ballot by 49 percent to 38 percent in September, leading to a runoff election. The subsequent campaign was even more bitter; despite his early support for civil rights, Carter's appeal to racism grew, and he criticized Sanders for supporting Martin Luther King Jr. Carter won the runoff election with 60 percent of the vote, and easily won the general election against Republican nominee Hal Suit. Once elected, Carter changed his tone, and began to speak against Georgia's racist politics. Leroy Johnson, a black state senator, voiced his support for Carter: "I understand why he ran that kind of ultra-conservative campaign. I don't believe you can win this state without being a racist."

Georgia governorship (1971–1975)

A black and white photographic official portrait of a young Carter as the governor of Georgia
Carter's official portrait as Governor of Georgia; dated 1971

Carter was sworn in as the 76th governor of Georgia on January 12, 1971. In his inaugural speech, he declared that "the time of racial discrimination is over", shocking the crowd and causing many of the segregationists who had supported him during the race to feel betrayed. Carter was reluctant to engage with his fellow politicians, making him unpopular with the legislature. He expanded the governor's authority by introducing a reorganization plan submitted in January 1972. Despite initially having a cool reception in the legislature, the plan passed at midnight on the last day of the session. Carter merged about 300 state agencies into 22, although it is disputed whether that saved the state money. On July 8, 1971, during an appearance in Columbus, Georgia, he stated his intention to establish a Georgia Human Rights Council to help solve issues ahead of any potential violence.

In a news conference on July 13, 1971, Carter announced that he had ordered department heads to reduce spending to prevent a $57 million deficit by the end of the 1972 fiscal year, specifying that each state department would be affected and estimating that 5 percent over government revenue would be lost if state departments continued to fully use allocated funds. On January 13, 1972, he requested that the state legislature fund an early childhood development program along with prison reform programs and $48 million (equivalent to $349,632,458 in 2023) in paid taxes for nearly all state employees.

Carter greeting Florida governor Reubin Askew and his wife in 1971; as president, Carter would appoint Askew as U.S. trade representative.

On March 1, 1972, Carter said he might call a special session of the general assembly if the Justice Department opted to turn down any reapportionment plans by either the House or Senate. He pushed several reforms through the legislature, providing equal state aid to schools in Georgia's wealthy and poor areas, setting up community centers for mentally disabled children, and increasing educational programs for convicts. Under this program, all such appointments were based on merit, rather than political influence. In one of his more controversial decisions, he vetoed a plan to build a dam on Georgia's Flint River, which attracted the attention of environmentalists nationwide.

Civil rights were a high priority for Carter, who added black state employees and portraits of three prominent black Georgians to the capitol building: Martin Luther King Jr., Lucy Craft Laney, and Henry McNeal Turner. This angered the Ku Klux Klan. He favored a constitutional amendment to ban busing for the purpose of expediting integration in schools on a televised joint appearance with Florida governor Reubin Askew on January 31, 1973, and co-sponsored an anti-busing resolution with Wallace at the 1971 National Governors Conference. After the U.S. Supreme Court threw out Georgia's death penalty statute in Furman v. Georgia (1972), Carter signed a revised death-penalty statute that addressed the court's objections, thus reintroducing the practice in the state. He later regretted endorsing the death penalty, saying, "I didn't see the injustice of it as I do now."

Ineligible for reelection, Carter looked toward a potential presidential run and engaged in national politics. He was named to several southern planning commissions and was a delegate to the 1972 Democratic National Convention, where liberal U.S. Senator George McGovern was the likely nominee. Carter tried to ingratiate himself with the conservative and anti-McGovern voters. He was fairly obscure at the time, and his attempt at triangulation failed; the 1972 Democratic ticket was McGovern and senator Thomas Eagleton. On August 3, Carter met with Wallace in Birmingham, Alabama, to discuss preventing the Democrats from losing in a landslide, but they did.

Carter regularly met with his fledgling campaign staff and decided to begin putting a presidential bid for 1976 together. He tried unsuccessfully to become chairman of the National Governors Association to boost his visibility. On David Rockefeller's endorsement, he was named to the Trilateral Commission in April 1973. The next year, he was named chairman of both the Democratic National Committee's congressional and gubernatorial campaigns. In May 1973, Carter warned his party against politicizing the Watergate scandal, which he attributed to President Richard Nixon's isolation from Americans and secretive decision-making.

1976 presidential campaign

A monochrome picture of Carter and Ford, both standing at podiums during a debate.
Carter and President Gerald Ford debating at the Walnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia, September 1976

On December 12, 1974, Carter announced his presidential campaign at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. His speech contained themes of domestic inequality, optimism, and change. Upon his entrance in the Democratic primaries, he was competing against sixteen other candidates, and was considered to have little chance against the more nationally known politicians like Wallace. His name recognition was two percent, and his opponents derisively asked "Jimmy Who?". In response to this, Carter began to emphasize his name and what he stood for, stating "My name is Jimmy Carter, and I'm running for president."

This strategy proved successful. By mid-March 1976, Carter was not only far ahead of the active contenders for the presidential nomination, but against incumbent Republican president Gerald Ford by a few percentage points. As the Watergate scandal was still fresh in the voters' minds, Carter's position as an outsider, distant from Washington, D.C. proved helpful. He promoted government reorganization. In June, Carter published a memoir titled Why Not the Best? to help introduce himself to the American public.

Carter became the front-runner early on by winning the Iowa caucuses and the New Hampshire primary. His strategy involved reaching a region before another candidate could extend influence there, traveling over 50,000 miles (80,000 kilometres), visiting 37 states, and delivering over 200 speeches before any other candidate had entered the race. In the South, he tacitly conceded certain areas to Wallace and swept them as a moderate when it became clear Wallace could not win it. In the North, Carter appealed largely to conservative Christian and rural voters. Whilst he did not achieve a majority in most Northern states, he won several by building the largest singular support base. Although Carter was initially dismissed as a regional candidate, he would clinch the Democratic nomination. In 1980, Lawrence Shoup noted that the national news media discovered and promoted Carter, and stated:

What Carter had that his opponents did not was the acceptance and support of elite sectors of the mass communications media. It was their favorable coverage of Carter and his campaign that gave him an edge, propelling him rocket-like to the top of the opinion polls. This helped Carter win key primary election victories, enabling him to rise from an obscure public figure to President-elect in the short space of 9 months.

During an interview in April 1976, Carter said, "I have nothing against a community that is... trying to maintain the ethnic purity of their neighborhoods." His remark was intended as supportive of open housing laws, but specifying opposition to government efforts to "inject black families into a white neighborhood just to create some sort of integration". Carter's stated positions during his campaign included public financing of congressional campaigns, his support for the creation of a federal consumer protection agency, creating a separate cabinet-level department for education, signing a peace treaty with the Soviet Union to limit nuclear weapons, reducing the defense budget, a tax proposal implementing "a substantial increase toward those who have the higher incomes" alongside a levy reduction on taxpayers with lower and middle incomes, making multiple amendments to the Social Security Act, and having a balanced budget by the end of his first term of office.

Map of the 1976 presidential election. Most western states are red whilst the majority of eastern states are blue.
The electoral map of the 1976 election

On July 15, 1976, he chose U.S. senator Walter Mondale as his running mate. Carter and Ford faced off in three televised debates, the first United States presidential debates since 1960.

For the November 1976 issue of Playboy, which hit newsstands a couple of weeks before the election, Robert Scheer interviewed Carter. While discussing his religion's view of pride, Carter said: "I've looked on a lot of women with lust. I've committed adultery in my heart many times." This response and his admission in another interview that he did not mind if people uttered the word "fuck" led to a media feeding frenzy and critics lamenting the erosion of boundary between politicians and their private intimate lives.

Carter began the race with a sizable lead over Ford, who narrowed the gap during the campaign, but lost to Carter in a narrow defeat on November 2, 1976. Carter won the popular vote by 50.1 percent to 48.0 percent for Ford and received 297 electoral votes to Ford's 240.

Transition

Preliminary planning for Carter's presidential transition had already been underway for months before his election. Carter had been the first presidential candidate to allot significant funds and a significant number of personnel to a pre-election transition planning effort, which then became standard practice. He set a mold that influenced all future transitions to be larger, more methodical and more formal than they were.

On November 22, 1976, Carter conducted his first visit to Washington, D.C. after being elected, meeting with director of the Office of Management James Lynn and United States secretary of defense Donald Rumsfeld at the Blair House, and holding an afternoon meeting with President Ford at the White House. The next day, he conferred with congressional leaders, expressing that his meetings with cabinet members had been "very helpful" and saying Ford had requested he seek out his assistance if needing anything. Relations between Ford and Carter were relatively cold during the transition. During his transition, Carter announced the selection of numerous designees for positions in his administration. On January 4, 1977, he told reporters he would free himself from potential conflicts of interest by leaving his peanut business in the hands of trustees.

Presidency (1977–1981)

A painting of Carter
Image of President Carter displayed in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington DC. Portrait by Robert Templeton.

Carter was inaugurated as the 39th president on January 20, 1977. One of Carter's first acts was the fulfillment of a campaign promise by issuing an executive order declaring unconditional amnesty for Vietnam War-era draft evaders, Proclamation 4483. Carter's tenure in office was marked by an economic malaise, a time of continuing inflation and recession and a 1979 energy crisis. On January 7, 1980, Carter signed Law H.R. 5860 aka Public Law 96–185, known as The Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979, to bail out the Chrysler Corporation with $3.5 billion (equivalent to $12.94 billion in 2023) in aid.

Carter attempted to calm various conflicts around the world, most visibly in the Middle East with the signing of the Camp David Accords; giving back the Panama Canal to Panama; and signing the SALT II nuclear arms reduction treaty with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. His final year was marred by the Iran hostage crisis, which contributed to his losing the 1980 election to Ronald Reagan. Whistleblowers have alleged, most recently in 2023, that people working on the Reagan campaign's behalf convinced Iran to prolong the crisis to reduce Carter's chance of reelection.

Domestic policy

U.S. energy crisis

Moralism typified much of Carter's action. On April 18, 1977, he delivered a televised speech declaring that the current energy crisis was the "moral equivalent of war". He encouraged energy conservation and installed solar water heating panels on the White House. He wore sweaters to offset turning down the heat in the White House. On August 4, 1977, Carter signed the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, forming the Department of Energy, the first new cabinet position in eleven years.

Carter boasted that the House of Representatives had "adopted almost all" of the energy proposal he had made five months earlier and called the compromise "a turning point in establishing a comprehensive energy program." The following month, on October 13, Carter stated he believed in the Senate's ability to pass the energy reform bill and identified energy as "the most important domestic issue that we will face while I am in office."

On January 12, 1978, during a press conference, Carter said the continued discussions about his energy reform proposal had been "long and divisive and arduous" as well as hindering to national issues that needed to be addressed with the implementation of the law. In an April 11, 1978, news conference, Carter said his biggest surprise "in the nature of a disappointment" since becoming president was the difficulty Congress had in passing legislation, citing the energy reform bill in particular: "I never dreamed a year ago in April when I proposed this matter to the Congress that a year later it still would not be resolved." The Carter energy legislation was approved by Congress after much deliberation and modification on October 15, 1978. The measure deregulated the sale of natural gas, dropped a longstanding pricing disparity between intra- and interstate gas, and created tax credits to encourage energy conservation and the use of non-fossil fuels.

On March 1, 1979, Carter submitted a standby gasoline rationing plan per the request of Congress. On April 5, he delivered an address in which he stressed the urgency of energy conservation and increasing domestic production of energy sources such as coal and solar. During an April 30 news conference, he said it was imperative that the House commerce committee approve the standby gasoline rationing plan and called on Congress to pass the several other standby energy conservation plans he had proposed.

On July 15, 1979, Carter delivered a nationally televised address in which he identified what he believed to be a "crisis of confidence" among American people, under the advisement of pollster Pat Caddell who believed Americans faced a crisis in confidence from events of the 1960s and 1970s, before his presidency. Some later called this his "malaise speech", memorable for mixed reactions and his use of rhetoric. The speech's negative reception centered on a view that he did not emphasize his own efforts to address the energy crisis and seemed too reliant on Americans.

EPA Love Canal Superfund

In 1978, Carter declared a federal emergency in the neighborhood of Love Canal in the city of Niagara Falls, New York. More than 800 families were evacuated from the neighborhood, which had been built on top of a toxic waste landfill. The Superfund law was created in response to the situation. Federal disaster money was appropriated to demolish the approximately 500 houses, the 99th Street School, and the 93rd Street School, which had been built on top of the dump; and to remediate the dump and construct a containment area for the hazardous wastes. This was the first time that such a process had been undertaken. Carter acknowledged that several more "Love Canals" existed across the country, and that discovering such hazardous dumpsites was "one of the grimmest discoveries of our modern era".

Poor relations with Congress

Carter typically refused to conform to Washington's rules. He avoided phone calls from members of Congress and verbally insulted them. He was unwilling to return political favors. His negativity led to frustration in passing legislation. During a press conference on February 23, 1977, Carter stated that it was "inevitable" that he would come into conflict with Congress and added that he had found "a growing sense of cooperation" with Congress and met in the past with congressional members of both parties. Carter developed a bitter feeling following an unsuccessful attempt at having Congress enact the scrapping of several water projects, which he had requested during his first 100 days in office and received opposition from members of his party.

As a rift ensued between the White House and Congress afterward, Carter noted that the liberal wing of the Democratic Party was most ardently against his policies, attributing this to Ted Kennedy's wanting the presidency. Carter, thinking he had support from 74 Congressmen, issued a "hit list" of 19 projects that he claimed were "pork barrel" spending that he claimed would result in a veto on his part if included in any legislation. He found himself at odds with Congressional Democrats once more, with speaker of the House of Representatives Tip O'Neill finding it inappropriate for a president to pursue what had traditionally been the role of Congress. Carter was also weakened by signing a bill that contained many of the "hit list" projects he intended to cancel.

In an address to a fundraising dinner for the Democratic National Committee on June 23, 1977, Carter said, "I think it's good to point out tonight, too, that we have evolved a good working relationship with the Congress. For eight years we had government by partisanship. Now we have government by partnership." At a July 28 news conference, assessing the first six months of his presidency, Carter spoke of his improved understanding of Congress: "I have learned to respect the Congress more in an individual basis. I've been favorably impressed at the high degree of concentrated experience and knowledge that individual members of Congress can bring on a specific subject, where they've been the chairman of a subcommittee or committee for many years and have focused their attention on this particular aspect of government life which I will never be able to do."

On May 10, 1979, the House voted against giving Carter authority to produce a standby gas rationing plan. The following day, Carter delivered remarks in the Oval Office describing himself as shocked and embarrassed for the American government by the vote and concluding "the majority of the House Members are unwilling to take the responsibility, the political responsibility for dealing with a potential, serious threat to our Nation." He furthered that a majority of House members were placing higher importance on "local or parochial interests" and challenged the lower chamber of Congress with composing their own rationing plan in the next 90 days.

Carter's remarks were met with criticism by House Republicans, who accused his comments of not befitting the formality a president should have in their public remarks. Others pointed to 106 Democrats voting against his proposal and the bipartisan criticism potentially coming back to haunt him. At the start of a news conference on July 25, 1979, Carter called on believers in the future of the U.S. and his proposed energy program to speak with Congress as it bore the responsibility to impose his proposals. Amid the energy proposal opposition, The New York Times commented that "as the comments flying up and down Pennsylvania Avenue illustrate, there is also a crisis of confidence between Congress and the President, sense of doubt and distrust that threatens to undermine the President's legislative program and become an important issue in next year's campaign."

Economy

A monochrome image of Carter shaking hands with Bill Clinton
President Carter meeting newly elected governor of Arkansas and future president Bill Clinton in 1978

Carter's presidency had a troubled economic history of two roughly equal periods. The first two years were a time of continuing recovery from the severe 1973–75 recession, which had left fixed investment at its lowest level since the 1970 recession and unemployment at 9%. His last two years were marked by double-digit inflation, coupled with very high interest rates, oil shortages, and slow economic growth. Due to the $30 billion economic stimulus legislation – such as the Public Works Employment Act of 1977 – proposed by Carter and passed by Congress, real household median had grown by 5.2%, with a projection of 6.4% for the next quarter.

The 1979 energy crisis ended this period of growth, and as inflation and interest rates rose, economic growth, job creation and consumer confidence declined sharply. The relatively loose monetary policy adopted by Federal Reserve Board chairman G. William Miller, had already contributed to somewhat higher inflation, rising from 5.8% in 1976 to 7.7% in 1978. The sudden doubling of crude oil prices by OPEC, the world's leading oil exporting cartel, forced inflation to double-digit levels, averaging 11.3% in 1979 and 13.5% in 1980. The sudden shortage of gasoline as the 1979 summer vacation season began exacerbated the problem and came to symbolize the crisis to the general public; the acute shortage, originating in the shutdown of Amerada Hess refining facilities, led to a lawsuit against the company that year by the federal government.

Deregulation

Carter surrounded by a crowd of people as he signs the Airline Deregulation Act.
Carter signing the Airline Deregulation Act, 1978

In 1977, Carter appointed Alfred E. Kahn to lead the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). He was part of a push for deregulation of the industry, supported by leading economists, leading think tanks in Washington, a civil society coalition advocating the reform (patterned on a coalition earlier developed for the truck-and-rail-reform efforts), the head of the regulatory agency, Senate leadership, the Carter administration, and even some in the airline industry. This coalition swiftly gained legislative results in 1978.

Carter signed the Airline Deregulation Act into law on October 24, 1978. The main purpose of the act was to remove government control over fares, routes and market entry (of new airlines) from commercial aviation. The Civil Aeronautics Board's powers of regulation were to be phased out, eventually allowing market forces to determine routes and fares. The Act did not remove or diminish the FAA's regulatory powers over all aspects of airline safety.

In 1979, Carter deregulated the American beer industry by making it legal to sell malt, hops, and yeast to American home brewers for the first time since the effective 1920 beginning of prohibition in the United States. This deregulation led to an increase in home brewing over the 1980s and 1990s that by the 2000s had developed into a strong craft microbrew culture in the United States, with 9,118 microbreweries, brewpubs, and regional craft breweries in the United States by the end of 2021.

Healthcare

During his presidential campaign, Carter embraced healthcare reform akin to the Ted Kennedy-sponsored bipartisan universal national health insurance. Carter's proposals on healthcare while in office included an April 1977 mandatory health care cost proposal, and a June 1979 proposal that provided private health insurance coverage. Carter saw the June 1979 proposal as a continuation of progress in American health coverage. President Harry S. Truman proposed a designation of health care as a basic right of Americans and Medicare and Medicaid were introduced under President Lyndon B. Johnson. The April 1977 mandatory health care cost proposal was passed in the Senate, but later defeated in the House. During 1978, he met with Kennedy over a compromise healthcare law that proved unsuccessful. He later said Kennedy's disagreements thwarted his plan to provide a comprehensive American health care system.

Education

Early into his term, Carter collaborated with Congress to fulfill his campaign promise to create a cabinet level education department. In an address from the White House on February 28, 1978, Carter argued "Education is far too important a matter to be scattered piecemeal among various government departments and agencies, which are often busy with sometimes dominant concerns." On February 8, 1979, the Carter administration released an outline of its plan to establish an education department and asserted enough support for the enactment to occur by June. On October 17, the same year, Carter signed the Department of Education Organization Act into law, establishing the United States Department of Education.

Carter expanded the Head Start program with the addition of 43,000 children and families, while the percentage of nondefense dollars spent on education was doubled. Carter was complimentary of the presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson and the 89th United States Congress for having initiated Head Start. In a speech on November 1, 1980, Carter stated his administration had extended Head Start to migrant children and was "working hard right now with Senator Bentsen and with Kika de la Garza to make as much as $45 million available in federal money in the border districts to help with the increase in school construction for the number of Mexican school children who reside here legally".

Foreign policy

Sadat, Carter, and Begin together during the Camp David accords
Anwar Sadat, Jimmy Carter and Menachem Begin meet at Camp David on September 6, 1978.

Israel and Egypt

Carter standing alongside Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin, during his 1979 visit
Carter standing alongside Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin, during his 1979 visit

From the onset of his presidency, Carter attempted to mediate the Arab–Israeli conflict. After a failed attempt to seek a comprehensive settlement between the two nations in 1977 (through reconvening the 1973 Geneva conference, Carter invited the Egyptian president Anwar Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin to the presidential lodge Camp David in September 1978, in hopes of creating a definitive peace. Whilst the two sides could not agree on Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank, the negotiations resulted in Egypt formally recognizing Israel, and the creation of an elected government in the West Bank and Gaza. This resulted in the Camp David Accords, which ended the war between Israel and Egypt.

The accords were a source of great domestic opposition in both Egypt and Israel. Historian Jørgen Jensehaugen argues that by the time Carter left office in January 1981, he was "in an odd position—he had attempted to break with traditional U.S. policy but ended up fulfilling the goals of that tradition, which had been to break up the Arab alliance, sideline the Palestinians, build an alliance with Egypt, weaken the Soviet Union and secure Israel."

Africa

The Carters and Julius Nyerere standing next to each other outside.
First Lady Rosalynn Carter, Tanzanian leader Julius Nyerere, and Carter, 1977
Carter standing alongside Olusegun Obasanjo outside.
Carter with Nigerian leader Olusegun Obasanjo on April 1, 1978

In an address to the African officials at the United Nations on October 4, 1977, Carter stated the U.S.'s interest to "see a strong, vigorous, free, and prosperous Africa with as much of the control of government as possible in the hands of the residents of your countries" and pointed to their unified efforts on "the problem of how to resolve the Rhodesian, Zimbabwe question." At a news conference later that month, Carter outlined that the U.S. wanted to "work harmoniously with South Africa in dealing with the threats to peace in Namibia and in Zimbabwe in particular", as well as do away with racial issues such as apartheid, and for equal opportunities in other facets of society in the region.

Carter visited Nigeria from March 31 to April 3, 1978, to improve relations; the first U.S. president to do so. He reiterated interest in convening a peace conference on Rhodesia that involved all parties and said the U.S. was moving as it could.

The elections of Margaret Thatcher as prime minister of the United Kingdom and Abel Muzorewa for Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, South Africa turning down a plan for South West Africa's independence, and domestic opposition in Congress were seen as a heavy blow to the Carter administration's policy toward South Africa. On May 16, 1979, the Senate voted in favor of lifting economic sanctions against Rhodesia, seen by some Rhodesians and South Africans as a potentially fatal blow to joint diplomacy efforts the United States and Britain had pursued in the region for three years and any compromise between the Salisbury leaders and guerrillas. On December 3, Secretary of State Cyrus Vance promised Senator Jesse Helms that when the British governor arrived in Salisbury to implement an agreed Lancaster House settlement and the electoral process began, the President would take prompt action to lift sanctions against Zimbabwe Rhodesia.

East Asia

Carter standing next to Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping with Carter in 1979

Carter sought closer relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC), continuing the Nixon administration's drastic policy of rapprochement. The two countries increasingly collaborated against the Soviet Union, and the Carter administration tacitly consented to the Chinese invasion of Vietnam. In December 1978, he announced the United States' intention to formally recognize and establish full diplomatic relations with the PRC starting on January 1, 1979, while severing ties with Taiwan, including revoking a mutual defense treaty with the latter. In 1979, Carter extended formal diplomatic recognition to the PRC for the first time. This decision led to a boom in trade between the United States and the PRC, which was pursuing economic reforms under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping.

After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Carter allowed the sale of military supplies to China and began negotiations to share military intelligence. In January 1980, Carter unilaterally revoked the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty with the Republic of China (ROC), which had lost control of mainland China to the PRC in 1949, but retained control of the island of Taiwan. Conservative Republicans challenged Carter's abrogation of the treaty in court, but the Supreme Court ruled that the issue was a non-justiciable political question in Goldwater v. Carter. The U.S. continued to maintain diplomatic contacts with the ROC through the 1979 Taiwan Relations Act.

During Carter's presidency, the U.S. continued to support Indonesia as a cold war ally, despite human rights violations in East Timor. The violations followed Indonesia's December 1975 invasion and occupation of East Timor. Under Carter's administration military assistance to Indonesia increased, peaking in 1978. This was antithetical to Carter's stated policy of "not selling weapons if it would exacerbate a potential conflict in a region of the world".

During a news conference on March 9, 1977, Carter reaffirmed his interest in having a gradual withdrawal of American troops from South Korea and said he wanted South Korea to eventually have "adequate ground forces owned by and controlled by the South Korean government to protect themselves against any intrusion from North Korea." On May 19, The Washington Post quoted Chief of Staff of U.S. forces in South Korea John K. Singlaub as criticizing Carter's withdrawal of troops from the Korean peninsula. Later that day, Press Secretary Rex Granum announced that Carter had summoned Singlaub to the White House, and confirmed that Carter had seen the Washington Post article. Carter relieved Singlaub of his duties on May 21 after a meeting between the two.

During a news conference on May 26, 1977, Carter said South Korea could defend itself with reduced American troops in case of conflict. From June 30 to July 1, 1979, Carter held meetings with president of South Korea Park Chung Hee at the Blue House for a discussion on relations between the U.S. and South Korea as well as Carter's interest in preserving his policy of worldwide tension reduction. On April 21, 1978, Carter announced a reduction in American troops in South Korea scheduled to be released by the end of the year by two-thirds, citing lack of action by Congress in regard to a compensatory aid package for the South Korean government.

Iran

Carter standing alongside King Hussein and the Shah of Iran
Carter with King Hussein of Jordan and Shah of Iran in 1977

On November 15, 1977, Carter pledged that his administration would continue positive relations between the U.S. and Iran, calling its contemporary status "strong, stable and progressive". On December 31, 1977, he called Iran under the Shah an "island of stability" made possible by the "admiration and love your people give to ". Carter praised the Shah's "great leadership" and spoke of "personal friendship" between them. When the Shah was overthrown, anti-Americanism increased in Iran, which intensified when Carter allowed the Shah to be admitted to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York on October 22, 1979.

On November 4, 1979, a group of Iranian students took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. The students belonged to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line and supported the Iranian Revolution. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for the next 444 days. They were freed immediately after Ronald Reagan succeeded Carter as president on January 20, 1981. During the crisis, Carter remained in isolation in the White House for more than 100 days, until he left to participate in the lighting of the National Menorah on the Ellipse.

A month into the affair, Carter announced his commitment to resolving the dispute without "any military action that would cause bloodshed or arouse the unstable captors of our hostages to attack them or to punish them". On April 7, 1980, he issued Executive Order 12205, imposing economic sanctions against Iran, and announced further government measures he deemed necessary to ensure a safe release.

On April 24, 1980, Carter ordered Operation Eagle Claw to try to free the hostages. The mission failed, leaving eight American servicemen dead and two aircraft destroyed. The failure led Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, who had opposed the mission, to resign.

Released in 2017, a declassified memo produced by the CIA in 1980 concluded "Iranian hardliners—especially Ayatollah Khomeini" were "determined to exploit the hostage issue to bring about President Carter's defeat in the November elections." Additionally, Tehran in 1980 wanted "the world to believe that Imam Khomeini caused President Carter's downfall and disgrace."

Soviet Union

Carter and Brezhnev sitting next to each other.
Carter and Leonid Brezhnev signing the SALT II treaty at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, June 18, 1979

On February 8, 1977, Carter said he had urged the Soviet Union to align with the U.S. in forming "a comprehensive test ban to stop all nuclear testing for at least an extended period of time", and that he was in favor of the Soviet Union ceasing deployment of the RSD-10 Pioneer. During a June 13 press conference, he said that at the beginning of the week, the U.S. would "work closely with the Soviet Union on a comprehensive test ban treaty to prohibit all testing of nuclear devices underground or in the atmosphere", and Paul Warnke would negotiate demilitarization of the Indian Ocean with the Soviet Union beginning the following week.

At a December 30 news conference, Carter said that during "the last few months, the United States and the Soviet Union have made great progress in dealing with a long list of important issues, the most important of which is to control the deployment of strategic nuclear weapons", and that the two countries sought to conclude SALT II talks by the spring of the next year. The talk of a comprehensive test ban treaty materialized with the signing of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty II by Carter and Leonid Brezhnev on June 18, 1979.

In 1979, the Soviets intervened in the Second Yemenite War. The Soviet backing of South Yemen constituted a "smaller shock", in tandem with tensions that were rising due to the Iranian Revolution. This played a role in making Carter's stance on the Soviet Union more assertive, a shift that finalized with the impending Soviet-Afghan War.

In his 1980 State of the Union Address, Carter emphasized the significance of relations between the two regions: "Now, as during the last 3½ decades, the relationship between our country, the United States of America, and the Soviet Union is the most critical factor in determining whether the world will live at peace or be engulfed in global conflict."

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

Communists under the leadership of Nur Muhammad Taraki seized power in Afghanistan on April 27, 1978. The new regime signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union in December of that year. Due to the regime's improvement of secular education and redistribution of land coinciding with mass executions and political oppression, Taraki was deposed by rival Hafizullah Amin in September. Amin was considered a "brutal psychopath" by foreign observers and had lost control of much of the country, prompting the Soviet Union to invade Afghanistan on December 24, 1979, execute Amin, and install Babrak Karmal as president.

Carter, Begin, and Brzezinski walking together outside.
Carter, Begin, and Zbigniew Brzezinski in September 1978
Carter standing next to King Khalid
King Khalid of Saudi Arabia and Carter in October 1978

In the West, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was considered a threat to global security and the oil supplies of the Persian Gulf, as well as the existence of Pakistan. These concerns led Carter to expand collaboration between the CIA and Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), which had begun in July 1979, when the CIA started providing $695,000 worth of non-lethal assistance (e.g., "cash, medical equipment, and radio transmitters") to the Afghan mujahideen. The modest scope of this early collaboration was likely influenced by the understanding, later recounted by CIA official Robert Gates, "that a substantial U.S. covert aid program" might have "raise the stakes", thereby causing "the Soviets to intervene more directly and vigorously than otherwise intended."

According to a 2020 review of declassified U.S. documents by Conor Tobin in the journal Diplomatic History: "The primary significance of this small-scale aid was in creating constructive links with dissidents through Pakistan's ISI that could be utilized in the case of an overt Soviet intervention ... The small-scale covert program that developed in response to the increasing Soviet influence was part of a contingency plan if the Soviets did intervene militarily, as Washington would be in a better position to make it difficult for them to consolidate their position, but not designed to induce an intervention."

On December 28, 1979, Carter signed a presidential finding explicitly allowing the CIA to transfer "lethal military equipment either directly or through third countries to the Afghan opponents of the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan" and to arrange "selective training, conducted outside of Afghanistan, in the use of such equipment either directly or via third country intermediation." His finding defined the CIA's mission as "harassment" of Soviet troops; at the time, "this was not a war the CIA expected to win outright on the battlefield," in the words of Steve Coll.

Carter was determined to respond harshly to what he considered a dangerous provocation. In a televised speech on January 23, 1980, he announced sanctions on the Soviet Union, promised renewed aid and registration to Pakistan and the Selective Service System, and committed the U.S. to the Persian Gulf's defense. Carter imposed an embargo on grain shipments to the USSR, tabled SALT II, requested a 5% annual increase in defense spending, and called for a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, which was ultimately joined by 65 other nations. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher enthusiastically backed Carter's tough stance. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski played a major role in organizing Carter's policies on the Soviet Union as a grand strategy.

In early 1980, Carter determined the thrust of U.S. policy for the duration of the war: he initiated a program to arm the mujahideen through Pakistan's ISI and secured a pledge from Saudi Arabia to match U.S. funding for this purpose. Despite huge expenditure, the Soviet Union was unable to quell the insurgency and withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989 amid the economic, political, and social turmoil within the USSR, precipitating its collapse two years later. The routing of U.S. aid through Pakistan led to some controversy, as weapons sent to Karachi were frequently controlled by Pakistan, whose government influenced which rebels received assistance. Despite this, Carter has expressed no regret over his decision to support what he still considers the Afghan freedom fighters.

International trips

Every country visited by Carter as president, highlighted in purple.
Countries visited by Carter during his presidency

Carter made twelve international trips to 25 countries as president. He was the first president to make a state visit to Sub-Saharan Africa when he went to Nigeria in 1978. His travel also included trips to Europe, Asia, and Latin America. He made several trips to the Middle East to broker peace negotiations. His visit to Iran from December 31, 1977, to January 1, 1978, took place less than a year before the overthrow of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Allegations and investigations

The September 21, 1977, resignation of Bert Lance, who was director of the office of management and budget in the Carter administration, came amid allegations of improper banking activities before his tenure and was an embarrassment to Carter.

Carter became the first sitting president to testify under oath as part of an investigation of him, as a result of United States Attorney General Griffin Bell appointing Paul J. Curran as a special counsel to investigate loans made to the peanut business Carter owned by a bank controlled by Lance and Curran's position as special counsel not allowing him to file charges on his own. Curran announced in October 1979 that no evidence had been found to support allegations that funds loaned from the National Bank of Georgia had been diverted to Carter's 1976 presidential campaign, ending the investigation.

1980 presidential campaign

Electoral Map of the 1980 election. Almost all the states are Red.
Electoral map of the 1980 election

Carter's reelection campaign was based primarily on attacking Ronald Reagan. The campaign frequently pointed out and mocked Reagan's proclivity for gaffes, using his age and perceived lack of connection to his native California voter base against him. Later, the campaign used similar rhetoric as Lyndon Johnson's 1964 presidential campaign, portraying Reagan as a warmonger who could not be trusted with the nuclear arsenal. Carter attempted to deny the Reagan campaign $29.4 million (equivalent to $108,718,255 in 2023) in campaign funds, due to dependent conservative groups already raising $60 million to get him elected—an amount that exceeded the limit of campaign funds. Carter's attempt was later denied by the Federal Election Commission.

Carter later wrote that the most intense and mounting opposition to his policies came from the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which he attributed to Ted Kennedy's ambition to replace him as president. After Kennedy announced his candidacy in November 1979, questions about his activities during his presidential bid were a frequent subject of Carter's press conferences during the Democratic presidential primaries. Despite winning key states such as California and New York, Kennedy surprised his supporters by running a weak campaign, and Carter won most of the primaries and secured renomination. Kennedy had mobilized the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which gave Carter weak support in the fall election.

Carter and Mondale were formally nominated at the 1980 Democratic National Convention in New York City. Carter delivered a speech notable for its tribute to the late Hubert Humphrey, whom he initially called "Hubert Horatio Hornblower", and Kennedy made "The Dream Shall Never Die" speech, in which he criticized Reagan and did not endorse Carter.

Along with Reagan and Kennedy, Carter was opposed by centrist John B. Anderson, who had previously contested the Republican presidential primaries, and upon losing to Reagan, reentered the race as an independent. Anderson advertised himself as a more liberal alternative to Reagan's conservatism. As the campaign went on, Anderson's polling numbers dropped and his base was gradually pulled to Carter or Reagan. Carter had to run against his own "stagflation"-ridden economy, while the hostage crisis in Iran dominated the news every week. He was attacked by conservatives for failing to "prevent Soviet gains" in less-developed countries, as pro-Soviet governments had taken power in countries including Angola, Ethiopia, Nicaragua and Afghanistan. His brother, Billy Carter, caused controversy due to his association with Muammar Gaddafi's regime in Libya. He alienated liberal college students, who were expected to be his base, by reinstating registration for the military draft. His campaign manager and former appointments secretary, Timothy Kraft, stepped down five weeks before the general election amid what turned out to have been an uncorroborated allegation of cocaine use.

On October 28, Carter and Reagan participated in the sole presidential debate of the election cycle in which they were both present, due to Carter refusing to participate in debates that included Anderson. Though initially trailing Carter by several points, Reagan experienced a surge in polling after the debate. This was in part influenced by Reagan deploying the phrase "There you go again", which became the election's defining phrase. It was later discovered that in the final days of the campaign, Reagan's team acquired classified documents Carter used to prepare for the debate.

Reagan defeated Carter in a landslide, winning 489 electoral votes. The Senate went Republican for the first time since 1952. In his concession speech, Carter admitted that he was hurt by the outcome of the election but pledged "a very fine transition period" with President-elect Reagan.

Post-presidency (1981–present)

Shortly after losing reelection, Carter told the White House press corps that he intended to emulate the retirement of Harry S. Truman and not use his subsequent public life to enrich himself.

Diplomacy

Diplomacy has been a large part of Carter's post-presidency. These diplomatic efforts began in the Middle East, with a September 1981 meeting with prime minister of Israel Menachem Begin, and a March 1983 tour of Egypt that included meeting with members of the Palestine Liberation Organization.

In 1994, president Bill Clinton sought Carter's assistance in a North Korea peace mission, during which Carter negotiated an understanding with Kim Il Sung. Carter outlined a treaty with Kim, which he announced to CNN without the Clinton administration's consent to spur American action.

Carter, Ahtisaari, Hague, and Brahmdi standing next to each other.
Carter (second from right) with Martti Ahtisaari, William Hague, and Lakhdar Brahimi from The Elders group in London, July 24, 2013.

In March 1999, Carter visited Taiwan and met with President Lee Teng-hui. During the meeting, Carter praised the progress Taiwan made in democracy, human rights, economy, culture, science and technology.

In 2006, Carter stated his disagreements with Israel's domestic and foreign policy while saying he was supported the country, extending his criticisms to Israel's policies in Lebanon, the West Bank, and Gaza.

In July 2007, Carter joined Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg, South Africa, to announce his participation in The Elders, a group of independent global leaders who work together on peace and human rights issues. After the announcement, Carter participated in visits to Darfur, Sudan, Cyprus, the Korean Peninsula, and the Middle East, among others. He attempted to travel to Zimbabwe in November 2008, but was stopped by President Robert Mugabe's government. In December 2008, Carter met with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, and in a June 2012 call with Jeffery Brown, stressed that Egyptian military generals could take full executive and legislative power to form a new constitution favoring themselves if their announced intentions came true.

On August 10, 2010, Carter traveled to North Korea to secure the release of Aijalon Gomes, successfully negotiating his release. Throughout the latter part of 2017, as tensions between the U.S. and North Korea persisted, Carter recommended a peace treaty between the two nations, and confirmed he had offered himself to the Trump administration as a willing candidate to be diplomatic envoy to North Korea.

Views on successive presidents

Carter began his first year out of office with a pledge not to critique the new Reagan administration, stating that it was "too early". He sided with Reagan on issues like building neutron arms after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, though frequently spoke out against his administration, denouncing many of its actions in the Middle East; in 1987, Carter insisted that he was incapable of preserving peace in the Middle East. Carter condemned the handling of the Sabra and Shatila massacre, the lack of efforts to rescue and retrieve four American businessmen from West Beirut in 1984, Reagan's support of the Strategic Defense Initiative in 1985, and his claim of an international conspiracy on terrorism. In 1987 he also criticized Reagan for conceding to terrorist demands, the nomination of Robert Bork for the Supreme Court, and his handling of the Persian Gulf crisis.

On January 16, 1989, before the inauguration of George H. W. Bush, Carter told former president Ford that Reagan had experienced a media honeymoon, saying that he believed Reagan's immediate successor would be less fortunate.

Carter had a mostly poor relationship with Bill Clinton, who snubbed him from his inauguration ceremony. He doubted the morality of the Clinton administration, particularly for the Monica Lewinsky scandal and the pardon of Marc Rich.

During the presidency of George W. Bush, Carter opposed the Iraq War and what he considered an attempt on the part of Bush and Tony Blair to oust Saddam Hussein by using "lies and misinterpretations". In May 2007, Carter said the Bush administration "has been the worst in history" in terms of its impact in foreign affairs; he later said he was just comparing Bush's tenure to that of Richard Nixon. Tony Fratto responded to Carter's comments on the Bush administration's behalf by saying that the comments increased Carter's irrelevance. By the end of Bush's second term, Carter considered Bush's tenure disappointing, as he told Forward Magazine of Syria.

Though he praised President Barack Obama in the early part of his tenure, Carter stated his disagreements with the use of drone strikes against suspected terrorists, Obama's choice to keep Guantanamo Bay detention camp open, and the federal surveillance programs disclosed by Edward Snowden.

During Donald Trump's presidency, Carter spoke favorably of the chance for immigration reform and criticized Trump for his handling of the U.S. national anthem protests. In October 2017, he defended Trump in an interview with The New York Times, criticizing the media's coverage of him as harsher "than any other president certainly that I've known about". In 2019, Trump called Carter and expressed concern that China was "getting ahead" of the U.S. Carter agreed, saying that China's strength came from its lack of involvement in armed conflict, calling the U.S. "the most warlike nation in the history of the world."

Presidential politics

Monochrome picture of Carter
Carter in 1988

Carter was considered a potential candidate in the 1984 presidential election, but did not run and instead endorsed Walter Mondale for the Democratic nomination. After Mondale secured the nomination, Carter critiqued the Reagan campaign, spoke at the 1984 Democratic National Convention, and advised Mondale. After the election, in which Reagan defeated Mondale, Carter said the loss was predictable because Mondale's platform included raising taxes.

In the 1988 presidential election, Carter ruled himself out as a candidate and predicted Vice President George H. W. Bush would be the Republican nominee. Carter foresaw unity at the 1988 Democratic National Convention, where he delivered an address. After the election, which Bush won, Carter said Bush would have a more difficult presidency than Reagan because he was not as popular.

During the 1992 presidential election, Carter met with Senator Paul Tsongas, who sought his advice. Carter spoke favorably of former governor of Arkansas Bill Clinton, and criticized Ross Perot, a Texas billionaire who was running as an independent. As the primary concluded, Carter spoke of the need for the 1992 Democratic National Convention to address certain issues not focused on in the past, and campaigned for Clinton after he became the Democratic nominee, publicly stating his expectation to be consulted during Clinton's presidency.

Carter endorsed Vice President Al Gore days before the 2000 presidential election, and in subsequent years voiced his opinion that Gore won the election, despite Bush's eventual victory following the Supreme Court's ruling in Bush v. Gore.

In the 2004 presidential election, Carter endorsed John Kerry and spoke at the 2004 Democratic National Convention. He also voiced concern about another voting mishap in Florida.

During the 2008 Democratic presidential primaries, it was speculated that Carter would endorse Barack Obama over his main primary rival Hillary Clinton, as Carter spoke favorably of Obama, as did other members of the Carter family. Carter also commented on Clinton ending her bid when superdelegates voted after the June 3 primary. Carter criticized the Republican nominee, John McCain. Carter warned Obama against selecting Clinton as his running mate.

Carter endorsed Republican Mitt Romney for the Republican nomination during the primary season of the 2012 presidential election, though he clarified that his backing of Romney was due to him considering the former Massachusetts governor the candidate that could best assure a victory for President Obama. Carter delivered a videotape address at the 2012 Democratic National Convention.

The attendant of George H. W. Bush's funeral.
The state funeral of George H. W. Bush in December 2018. Carter and his wife Rosalynn can be seen on the far right of the photograph.

Carter was critical of Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump shortly after the latter entered the primary, predicting that he would lose. As the primary continued, Carter said he would prefer Trump to his main rival, Ted Cruz, though he rebuked the Trump campaign in remarks during the primary and in his address to the 2016 Democratic National Convention. Carter believes that Trump would not have been elected without Russia's interference in the 2016 election, and "that Trump didn't actually win the election in 2016. He lost the election, and he was put into office because the Russians interfered on his behalf." When questioned, he agreed that Trump is an "illegitimate president". In a 2017 discussion with Senator Bernie Sanders, Carter revealed he voted for Sanders in the 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries.

Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter delivered a recorded audio message endorsing Joe Biden for the virtual 2020 Democratic National Convention. On January 6, 2021, following the U.S. Capitol attack, along with the other three still living former presidents, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, and Bill Clinton, Jimmy Carter denounced the attack, releasing a statement saying that he and his wife were "troubled" by the events, also stating that what had occurred was "a national tragedy and is not who we are as a nation", and adding that "having observed elections in troubled democracies worldwide, I know that we the people can unite to walk back from this precipice to peacefully uphold the laws of our nation". Carter delivered a recorded audio message for the inauguration of Joe Biden on January 20, 2021, as the Carters were unable to attend the ceremony in person.

In November 2022, the U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth District overruled a three-judge panel of the court and scheduled a rehearing of the case against the Trump administration-proposed land swap in Alaska to allow a road through the Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. In an unusual action, Carter had filed an opinion in support of the suit by environmental groups, saying the swap violated the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Anilca) passed in 1980 near the end of Carter's term. Carter said the act "may be the most significant domestic achievement of my political life" at the time of his filing.

Hurricane relief

Carter criticized the Bush administration's handling of Hurricane Katrina, and built homes in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. He also partnered with former presidents to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast and Texas communities, in addition to writing op-eds about the goodness seen in Americans who assist each other during natural disasters.

Other activities

Carter discussing his legacy and the work of the Carter Center on the eve of his 95th birthday.

In 1982, Carter founded the Carter Center, a non-governmental and non-profit organization with the purpose of advancing human rights and alleviating human suffering, including helping improve the quality of life for people in more than 80 countries. Among these efforts has been the contribution of the Carter Center working alongside the World Health Organization to the near-eradication of dracunculiasis, also called Guinea worm disease. The incidence of this disease has decreased from 3.5 million cases in the mid-1980s, to 25 cases in 2016, and 10 as of September 2021 according to the Carter Center's statistics.

Carter attended the dedication of his presidential library and those of Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush. He delivered eulogies at the funerals of Coretta Scott King, Gerald Ford, and Theodore Hesburgh.

In 2007, Carter founded the New Baptist Covenant organization for social justice.

As of August 2019, Carter is Honorary Chair for the World Justice Project and formerly served as one for the Continuity of Government Commission. He continued to occasionally teach Sunday school at Maranatha Baptist Church as of 2019. Carter also teaches at Emory University in Atlanta, and in June 2019 was awarded tenure for 37 years of service.

Israel and Palestine

Carter's Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid, a New York Times Best Seller book, published in 2006, generated controversy for characterizing Israel's policies in the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip as amounting to apartheid. In an interview, Carter defined apartheid as the "forced separation of two peoples in the same territory with one of the groups dominating or controlling the other." In remarks broadcast over radio, he said that Israel's policies amounted to an apartheid worse than South Africa's:

When Israel does occupy this territory deep within the West Bank, and connects the 200-or-so settlements with each other, with a road, and then prohibits the Palestinians from using that road, or in many cases even crossing the road, this perpetrates even worse instances of apartness, or apartheid, than we witnessed even in South Africa.

Some accused Carter of antisemitism. He defended his arguments and said, "the hope is that my book will at least stimulate a debate, which has not existed in this country. There's never been any debate on this issue, of any significance." He expressed his opinion that Israel will not have peace until it agrees to withdraw from the occupied territories, adding, "the greatest commitment in my life has been trying to bring peace to Israel." The comparisons of Israel and apartheid drew widespread traction in the early 2020s, after Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and other Palestinian, Israeli and international human rights groups issued reports characterizing Israel's policies as apartheid.

In his 2010 book We Can Have Peace in the Holy Land, Carter cites Israel's unwillingness to withdraw from the territories and settlement expansion as the primary obstacle to peace in the Middle East.

Personal life

Carter building homes despite having a black eye from a fall, 2019

Carter's hobbies include painting, fly fishing, woodworking, cycling, tennis, and skiing. He also has an interest in poetry, particularly the works of Dylan Thomas. During a state visit to the UK in 1977, Carter suggested that Thomas should have a memorial in Poets' Corner at Westminster Abbey; this later came to fruition in 1982.

Carter was a personal friend of Elvis Presley, whom he and Rosalynn met on June 30, 1973, before Presley was to perform onstage in Atlanta. They remained in contact by telephone two months before Presley's sudden death in August 1977. Carter later recalled an abrupt phone call received in June 1977 from Presley who sought a presidential pardon from Carter, to help George Klein's criminal case; at the time Klein had been indicted for only mail fraud, and was later found guilty of conspiracy. According to Carter, Presley was almost incoherent because of barbiturates; although he phoned the White House several times again, this was the last time they spoke. The day after Presley's death, Carter issued a statement and explained how he had "changed the face of American popular culture".

Carter filed a report with both the International UFO Bureau and the National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena, stating that he sighted an unidentified flying object in October 1969.

Beliefs

From a young age, Carter showed a deep commitment to evangelical Christianity. In 1942, Carter became a deacon and taught Sunday school at Maranatha Baptist Church in Plains, Georgia. At a private inauguration worship service, the preacher was Nelson Price, the pastor of Roswell Street Baptist Church of Marietta, Georgia. An evangelical Christian, Carter appealed to voters after the scandals of the Nixon Administration, and is credited with popularizing the term "born again" into American lexicon during the 1976 American presidential campaign. As president, Carter prayed several times a day, and professed that Jesus was the driving force in his life. He was greatly influenced by a sermon he had heard as a young man that asked: "If you were arrested for being a Christian, would there be enough evidence to convict you?" In 2000, after the Southern Baptist Convention announced it would no longer permit women to become pastors, he renounced his membership, saying: "I personally feel that women should play an absolutely equal role in service of Christ in the church." He remained a member of the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship. Carter's support for the Equal Rights Amendment led many evangelical conservatives to leave the Democratic Party, contributing to the development of the Christian right in American politics.

Family

The Empress of Iran holding Carter's infant grandson.
Farah Pahlavi, Empress of Iran, holds Jimmy Carter IV while Rosalynn Carter, Caron Carter and Chip Carter watch, January 1978.

Carter had three younger siblings, all of whom died of pancreatic cancer: sisters Gloria Spann (1926–1990) and Ruth Stapleton (1929–1983), and brother Billy Carter (1937–1988). He was first cousin to politician Hugh Carter and a distant cousin to the Carter family of musicians. He is related to Motown founder Berry Gordy by way of their white great-grandfather James Thomas Gordy, who had a relationship with a black female slave he owned.

Carter married Rosalynn Smith on July 7, 1946, in the Plains Methodist Church, the church of Rosalynn's family. They had three sons, Jack, James III, and Donnel; one daughter, Amy; nine grandsons (one of whom is deceased), three granddaughters, five great-grandsons, and eight great-granddaughters. Mary Prince (an African American woman wrongly convicted of murder, and later pardoned) was their daughter Amy's nanny for most of the period from 1971 until Jimmy Carter's presidency ended. Carter had asked to be designated as her parole officer, thus helping to enable her to work in the White House.

The Carters celebrated their 77th anniversary on July 7, 2023. On October 19, 2019, they became the longest-wed presidential couple, having overtaken George and Barbara Bush at 26,765 days. After Rosalynn's death on November 19, 2023, Carter released the following statement:

Rosalynn was my equal partner in everything I ever accomplished. She gave me wise guidance and encouragement when I needed it. As long as Rosalynn was in the world, I always knew somebody loved and supported me.

The Carters' eldest son, Jack Carter, was the 2006 Democratic nominee for U.S. Senate in Nevada and lost to Republican incumbent John Ensign. Jack's son Jason Carter is a former Georgia state senator, and in 2014 was the Democratic nominee for governor of Georgia, losing to the Republican incumbent, Nathan Deal. On December 20, 2015, while teaching a Sunday school class, Carter announced that his 28-year-old grandson Jeremy Carter had died of unspecified causes.

Health and longevity

Health issues

Carter riding a bicycle
Carter in Plains, Georgia, 2008

On August 3, 2015, Carter underwent an elective surgery to remove a small mass on his liver, and his prognosis for a full recovery was initially said to be excellent. On August 12, he announced he had been diagnosed with cancer that had metastasized, without specifying where the cancer had originated. On August 20, Carter disclosed that melanoma had been found in his brain and liver, and that he had begun treatment with the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab and was about to start radiation therapy. His healthcare was managed by Emory Healthcare of Atlanta. He has an extensive family history of cancer, including both of his parents and all three of his siblings. On December 5, he issued a statement, announcing that his medical scans no longer showed any cancer.

Carter broke his hip during a fall at his Plains home on May 13, 2019, and underwent surgery the same day at the Phoebe Sumter Medical Center in Americus, Georgia. On October 6, a forehead injury above his left eyebrow received during another fall at home required 14 stitches. A public appearance afterward revealed that the former president had a black eye from the injury. On October 21, Carter was admitted to the Phoebe Sumter Medical Center after sustaining a minor pelvic fracture after falling again at home for the third time in 2019. He was able to resume teaching Sunday school at Maranatha Baptist Church on November 3.

On November 11, 2019, Carter was hospitalized at the Emory University Hospital in Atlanta for a procedure to relieve pressure on his brain caused by bleeding connected to his falls. The surgery was successful, and he was released from the hospital on November 27. On December 2, 2019, Carter was readmitted to the hospital for a urinary tract infection. He was released on December 4.

On February 18, 2023, the Carter Center announced that following a "series of short hospital stays", Carter decided to "spend his remaining time at home with his family" in Plains to "receive hospice care instead of additional medical intervention" for an undisclosed terminal illness. Carter asked President Biden to deliver his eulogy.

Longevity

At 99 years old, Carter is the longest-lived former U.S. president. He has been the earliest-serving living former president since Gerald Ford's death in 2006. In 2012, he surpassed Herbert Hoover as the longest-retired president. On January 20, 2017, and January 20, 2021, Carter became the first president to live to the 40th anniversary of his inauguration and post-presidency, respectively. In 2017, Carter, then 92, became the oldest former president ever to attend an American presidential inauguration. On March 22, 2019, he became the nation's longest-lived president, when he surpassed the lifespan of George H. W. Bush, who died at the age of 94 years, 171 days, in November 2018.

Carter entered hospice care several months before celebrating his 99th birthday at his home. He noted that it felt difficult to reach his 90s, saying in a 2019 interview with People that he never expected to live as long as he had and that his secret to a long life was a good marriage. Carter has made arrangements to be buried in front of his home at 209 Woodland Drive in Plains. He noted in 2006 that a funeral in Washington, D.C., with visitation at the Carter Center was also planned.

Legacy

Public opinion

In exit polls from the 1976 presidential election, many voters still held Ford's pardon of Nixon against him. By comparison, Carter was viewed as a sincere, honest, and well-meaning southerner. However, in the 1980 election, Reagan projected an easy self-confidence, in contrast to Carter's serious and introspective temperament. Carter was portrayed as pessimistic and indecisive in comparison to Reagan, who was known for his charm and delegation of tasks to subordinates. Reagan used the economic issues, Iran hostage crisis, and lack of Washington cooperation to portray Carter as a weak and ineffectual leader. Carter was the first elected incumbent president since Herbert Hoover in 1932 to lose a reelection bid. Carter began his presidency with a 66 percent approval rating, which had dropped to 34 percent approval by the time he left office, with 55 percent disapproving.

Carter's presidency was initially viewed by some scholars as a failure. In the historical rankings of American presidents, Carter's presidency has ranged from 18th to 34th place. The documentary Back Door Channels: The Price of Peace (2009) credits Carter's efforts at Camp David, which brought peace between Israel and Egypt, with bringing the only meaningful peace to the Middle East. His post-presidency activities have been favorably received. The Independent wrote, "Carter is widely considered a better man than he was a president." Although his presidency received a mixed reception, his peacekeeping and humanitarian efforts since he left office have made Carter renowned as one of the most successful ex-presidents in American history.

Awards and honors

Carter received the American Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award in 1984. The Jimmy Carter Library and Museum was opened in 1986. The following year, the Jimmy Carter National Historical Park was established as a National Historic Site and in 2021, renamed as a national historical park. In 1991, Carter was made an honorary member of Phi Beta Kappa at Kansas State University, and was elected to the American Philosophical Society. In 1998, the U.S. Navy named the third and last Seawolf-class submarine, honoring Carter and his service as a submariner officer.

Carter received the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights, given in honor of human rights achievements, and the Hoover Medal, recognizing engineers who have contributed to global causes. Carter's 2002 Nobel Peace Prize was partially a response to president George W. Bush's threats of war against Iraq and Carter's criticism of the Bush administration. In 2009, the Souther Field Airport in Americus, Georgia, was renamed Jimmy Carter Regional Airport.

Carter has been nominated nine times for the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for audio recordings of his books, and has won three times—for Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis (2007), A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2016) and Faith: A Journey For All (2018).

On February 21, 2024, the White House Historical Association unveiled its official 2024 White House Christmas ornament honoring Carter's naval service and efforts for peace. This was the first time a president being honored was alive at the time of the unveiling.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Naval Academy's Class of 1947 graduated in 1946 as a result of World War II.
  2. ^ Carter is the only U.S. president to have lived in subsidized housing before he took office.
  3. ^ Eagleton was later replaced on the ticket by Sargent Shriver.
  4. ^ Curran also investigated President Jimmy Carter's family peanut business for the Justice Department in 1979, and thus became the first lawyer to examine a sitting president under oath.
  5. ^ After working in the Georgia governor's mansion as a trustee prisoner, Prince had been returned to prison in 1975 when Carter's term as governor ended, but intervention on her behalf by both Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter, with Jimmy Carter asking to be designated as her parole officer, enabled her to be reprieved and to work in the White House.

Citations

  1. ^ Godbold, E. Stanly Jr. (2010). Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter: The Georgia Years, 1924-1974. Oxford University Press. p. 9. ISBN 9780199779628. Archived from the original on February 19, 2023. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  2. ^ a b c Bourne, pp. 11–32.
  3. ^ a b Kaufman, Diane; Kaufman, Scott (2013). Historical dictionary of the Carter era. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8108-7968-3. OCLC 834614686. Archived from the original on December 7, 2023. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  4. ^ Carter, Jeff (2012). Ancestors of Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7864-8954-1. OCLC 802261814. Archived from the original on December 7, 2023. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  5. ^ Bourne, p. 9.
  6. ^ a b Bourne, p. 114.
  7. ^ Biven, W. Carl (2002). Jimmy Carter's economy: policy in an age of limits. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-8078-6124-3. OCLC 53876246. Archived from the original on December 7, 2023. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  8. ^ Flippen, J. Brooks (2011). Jimmy Carter, the politics of family, and the rise of the religious right. Athens: University of Georgia Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-8203-3955-9. OCLC 724088293. Archived from the original on December 7, 2023. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  9. ^ Newton, David E. (2016). The global water crisis: a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, California. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-4408-3981-8. OCLC 945976409. Archived from the original on December 7, 2023. Retrieved February 18, 2023.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  10. ^ a b c Hamilton, Neil A. (2005). Presidents: a biographical dictionary (2 ed.). New York: Facts On File. p. 334. ISBN 978-1-4381-0816-2. OCLC 234178908. Archived from the original on December 7, 2023. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  11. ^ "Plains High School". National Park Service. Archived from the original on July 17, 2022. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  12. ^ Hayward, Steven F. (2004). The Real Jimmy Carter: How Our Worst Ex-president Undermines American Foreign Policy, Coddles Dictators, and Created the Party of Clinton and Kerry. Washington DC: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 978-1-59698-278-9. OCLC 836407503. Earl may not have voted for FRD again, but he was not above receiving several New Deal agricultural subsidies as the Depression wore on
  13. ^ a b Hobkirk, Lori (2002). James Earl Carter: our thirty-ninth president. Chanhassen, Minn.: Child's World, Inc. ISBN 1-56766-873-9. OCLC 45024331.
  14. ^ Shafik, Aasef (2008). Global peace lovers. Authorhouse. p. 167. ISBN 9781438937809. OCLC 1033641928.
  15. ^ a b Bourne, pp. 33–43.
  16. ^ a b Panton, Kenneth J. (2022). Historical dictionary of the United States. Lanham. ISBN 978-1-5381-2419-2. OCLC 1295808727. Archived from the original on November 6, 2023. Retrieved August 9, 2023.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  17. ^ "Jimmy Carter". Georgia Tech Alumni Association. Archived from the original on November 6, 2023. Retrieved August 21, 2023.
  18. ^ Inventing a voice: the rhetoric of American first ladies of the twentieth century. Molly Meijer Wertheimer. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 2004. p. 343. ISBN 0-7425-2970-3. OCLC 835122766.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  19. ^ Bourne, pp. 44–55.
  20. ^ a b "Former First Lady Rosalynn Carter Passes Away at Age 96". Carter Center. November 19, 2023. Archived from the original on November 19, 2023. Retrieved November 19, 2023.
  21. ^ Hingston, Sandy (April 24, 2016). "Why This Princeton Football Team Won't Be Suiting Up Next Season". Philadelphia. Archived from the original on November 6, 2016. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
  22. ^ Argetsinger, Amy (June 5, 1996). "THE CLASS OF THE NAVAL ACADEMY HAS 50TH REUNION". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 4, 2023.
  23. ^ Alter, p. 59.
  24. ^ a b Zelizer, pp. 11–12.
  25. ^ Thomas, Sunny (1978). Jimmy Carter : from peanuts to presidency. Cornwall, Ont.: Vesta Publications. p. 18. ISBN 0-919806-61-9. OCLC 6041403.
  26. ^ Nijnatten, Frans van (2012). Tussen liberalisme en conservatisme: de verkiezingscampagnes van Jimmy Carter (1962-1980). Amsterdam: Vossiuspers UvA. p. 77. ISBN 978-90-5629-698-8. OCLC 775137957.
  27. ^ "Jimmy Carter's Naval Service". Jimmy Carter Presidential Library & Museum. Archived from the original on November 16, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
  28. ^ Hambley, Del (2008). Presidential footprints: inauguration of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, January 20, 1961. Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Publishing. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-59858-815-6. OCLC 678081512.
  29. ^ Bourne, pp. 72–77.
  30. ^ Bourne, p. 74.
  31. ^ Frank, Northen Magill (1995). Great Events from History II: 1945–1966. Salem Press. p. 554. ISBN 978-0-89356-753-8. Archived from the original on November 11, 2023. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  32. ^ Martel, Peter (2008). Memoirs of a Hayseed Physicist. Strategic Book. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-60693-341-1. Archived from the original on April 10, 2022. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  33. ^ Marguet, Serge (2022). A brief history of nuclear reactor accidents from Leipzig to fukushima. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. p. 262. ISBN 978-3-031-10500-5. OCLC 1366112034.
  34. ^ Milnes, Arthur (January 28, 2009). "When Jimmy Carter faced radioactivity head-on". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on February 17, 2011.
  35. ^ "James Earl Carter, Jr". Naval History and Heritage Command. October 19, 1997. Archived from the original on February 20, 2023. Retrieved February 20, 2023.
  36. ^ "Jimmy Carter". Presidential Timeline of the 20th Century. Archived from the original on October 15, 2008.
  37. ^ Wooten, James T. (1978). Dasher: the roots and the rising of Jimmy Carter. New York: Summit Books. p. 270. ISBN 0-671-40004-5. OCLC 3481251. Archived from the original on December 7, 2023. Retrieved February 19, 2023.
  38. ^ Schneider, Dorothy (2005). First ladies : a biographical dictionary. Carl J. Schneider (2 ed.). New York: Facts on File. p. 310. ISBN 978-1-4381-0815-5. OCLC 234178582.
  39. ^ Bourne, Peter G. (1997). Jimmy Carter: a comprehensive biography from Plains to post-presidency. New York: Scribner. p. 79. ISBN 0-684-19543-7. OCLC 35955194. Archived from the original on May 20, 2022. Retrieved February 19, 2023.
  40. ^ Bourne, pp. 77–81.
  41. ^ Hayward, p. 23.
  42. ^ Eckstein, Megan (March 9, 2015). "From Ensign to Commander-in-Chief: A Look at the Presidents Who Served in the U.S. Navy Reserve". USNI News. Annapolis, MD: United States Navy Institute. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  43. ^ Ocean Science News. Washington, D.C.: Nautilus Press. 1976. p. 109. Archived from the original on November 11, 2023. Retrieved March 21, 2022. The Naval Record of James Earl Carter Jr.: Medals and awards: American Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, China Service Medal, and Natl. Defense Service Medal
  44. ^ "Lieutenant James Earl Carter Jr., USN". Naval History and Heritage Command. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  45. ^ Mukunda, Gautam (2022). Picking presidents : how to make the most consequential decision in the world. Oakland, California. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-520-97703-7. OCLC 1303569935.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  46. ^ a b Bourne, pp. 83–91.
  47. ^ A companion to Gerald R. Ford and Jimmy Carter. Scott Kaufman. Chichester, UK. 2016. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-118-90763-4. OCLC 916409068.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) CS1 maint: others (link)
  48. ^ Gherman, Beverly (2004). Jimmy Carter. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. p. 38. ISBN 0-8225-0816-8. OCLC 51861756.
  49. ^ Morris, Kenneth Earl (1996). Jimmy Carter, American moralist. Athens: University of Georgia Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-8203-1862-0. OCLC 34318552.
  50. ^ Morris, p. 115.
  51. ^ Gherman, Beverly (2004). Jimmy Carter. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publishers. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-8225-0816-8. Archived from the original on July 5, 2023. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  52. ^ Bourne, pp. 92–108.
  53. ^ "Jimmy Carter – Presidency, Wife & Health". biography.com. March 27, 2018. Archived from the original on June 6, 2021. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  54. ^ a b Carter, Jimmy (1992). Turning Point: A Candidate, a State, and a Nation Come of Age. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press. pp. 83–87. ISBN 978-0-8129-2299-8.
  55. ^ Bourne, pp. 108–132.
  56. ^ Bourne, pp. 132–140.
  57. ^ Ryan, Bernard Jr. (2006). Jimmy Carter: U.S. President and Humanitarian. New York, NY: Ferguson. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8160-5903-4. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  58. ^ Bourne, pp. 132–145.
  59. ^ "Members Of The General Assembly Of Georgia – Term 1965–1966". State of Georgia. February 1965. Archived from the original on February 16, 2020. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
  60. ^ Bourne, pp. 145–149.
  61. ^ Bourne, p. 150
  62. ^ Bourne, pp.154–155
  63. ^ Bourne, pp. 149–153.
  64. ^ a b c Bourne, pp. 153–165.
  65. ^ Bourne, pp. 165–179.
  66. ^ Hayward, pp. 39–46.
  67. ^ a b c Bourne, pp. 180–199.
  68. ^ a b Hayward, pp. 46–51.
  69. ^ "Inaugural Address" (PDF). Jimmy Carter Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 1, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
  70. ^ Bourne, p. 204.
  71. ^ Hayward, pp. 55–56.
  72. ^ a b Bourne, pp. 214–220.
  73. ^ Freeman, Roger A. (1982). The Wayward Welfare State. Hoover Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8179-7493-0. Archived from the original on July 5, 2023. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  74. ^ "Carter aims to create human relations panel". Rome News-Tribune. July 8, 1971. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  75. ^ "Gov. Carter orders cuts in Georgia spending". Rome News-Tribune. July 14, 1971. Archived from the original on September 1, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  76. ^ "Two budget proposals offered by Gov. Carter to legislature". Rome News-Tribune. January 13, 1972. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  77. ^ "Reappointment rejection could bring session". Rome News-Tribune. March 2, 1972. Archived from the original on September 1, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  78. ^ Hugh S. Sidey (January 22, 2012). "Carter, Jimmy". World Book Student. Archived from the original on April 27, 2012.
  79. ^ World Book Encyclopedia (Hardcover) . World Book. January 2001. p. 542. ISBN 978-0-7166-0101-2.
  80. ^ "Jimmy Carter battles plan for dams – again". NBC News. Associated Press. July 28, 2008. Archived from the original on August 1, 2019. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  81. ^ a b Bourne, pp. 250–251.
  82. ^ "Governors disagree on school busing". Rome News-Tribune. February 1, 1973. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  83. ^ "Southern governors meeting in Atlanta". -Rome News-Tribune. November 7, 1971. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  84. ^ Bourne, pp. 212–213.
  85. ^ Pilkington, Ed (November 11, 2013). "Jimmy Carter calls for fresh moratorium on death penalty". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 5, 2023. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  86. ^ Bourne, pp. 221–230.
  87. ^ Bourne, p. 230
  88. ^ "Carter, Wallace hold election conference". Rome News-Tribune. August 4, 1972. Archived from the original on October 11, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  89. ^ Bourne, p. 234
  90. ^ Bourne, pp. 237–250.
  91. ^ "Carter cautions Democrats to play it cool on Watergate". Rome News-Tribune. May 13, 1973. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  92. ^ "Carter off on European tour". Rome News-Tribune. May 14, 1973. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  93. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. (December 12, 1974). "Address Announcing Candidacy for the Democratic Presidential Nomination at the National Press Club in Washington, DC". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  94. ^ "Carter a candidate for the presidency". Lodi News-Sentinel. December 13, 1974. Archived from the original on May 21, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  95. ^ E. Zeizler, Julian (September 7, 2015). "17 Democrats Ran for President in 1976. Can Today's GOP Learn Anything From What Happened?". Politico. Archived from the original on October 15, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  96. ^ "American History: Jimmy Carter Wins the 1976 Presidential Election". Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  97. ^ Setterfield, Ray (December 31, 2020). "'My Name is Jimmy Carter and I'm Running for President'". On This Day | OnThisDay.com. Archived from the original on May 21, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  98. ^ Shoup, Laurence H. (1980). The Carter Presidency, and Beyond: Power and Politics in the 1980s. Ramparts Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-87867-075-8.
  99. ^ Mohr, Charles (July 16, 1976). "Choice of Mondale Helps To Reconcile the Liberals". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 31, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  100. ^ "Jimmy Carter". The American Experience. Public Broadcasting Service. November 11, 2002. Archived from the original on June 26, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  101. ^ Broder, David (December 18, 1974). "Early Evaluation Impossible on Presidential Candidates". Toledo Blade. p. 16. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  102. ^ Shoup, Laurence H. (1980). The Carter Presidency, and Beyond: Power and Politics in the 1980s. Ramparts Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-87867-075-8.
  103. ^ a b "The Campaign: Candidate Carter: I Apologize". Time. Vol. 107, no. 16. April 19, 1976. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  104. ^ "Carter Officially Enters Demo Presidential Race". Herald-Journal. December 13, 1974. Archived from the original on November 19, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  105. ^ "Carter Backs Consumer Plans". Toledo Blade. Toledo, Ohio. August 10, 1976. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  106. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Bardstown, Kentucky Remarks and a Question-and-Answer Session at a Town Meeting. (July 31, 1979)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved August 30, 2021. THE PRESIDENT. Could you all hear it? The question was, since it appears that the campaign promise that I made to have a separate department of education might soon be fulfilled, would I consider appointing a classroom teacher as the secretary of education.
  107. ^ "Carter Berates Lack Of New A-Arm Pact". Toledo Blade. Toledo, Ohio. October 14, 1976. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  108. ^ Kane, Frank (October 3, 1976). "Carter Positions on Amnesty, Defense Targets of Dole Jabs". Toledo Blade. Toledo, Ohio. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  109. ^ "GOP Raps Carter On Tax Proposal". Herald-Journal. September 19, 1976. Archived from the original on October 11, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  110. ^ "Social Security Amendments of 1977 Statement on Signing S. 305 Into Law". American Presidency Project. December 20, 1977. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  111. ^ "Carter Would Delay Programs If Necessary". Herald-Journal. September 4, 1976. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  112. ^ Kane, Frank (July 15, 1976). "Carter Nominated, Names Mondale Running Mate". Toledo Blade. Toledo, Ohio. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  113. ^ a b Howard, Adam (September 26, 2016). "10 Presidential Debates That Actually Made an Impact". NBC News. Archived from the original on May 4, 2021. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  114. ^ Kraus, Sidney (1979). The Great Debates: Carter vs. Ford, 1976. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 3. Archived from the original on January 1, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  115. ^ "The Playboy Interview: Jimmy Carter." Robert Scheer. Playboy, November 1976, Vol. 23, Iss. 11, pp. 63–86.
  116. ^ Casser-Jayne, Halli. A Year in My Pajamas with President Obama, The Politics of Strange Bedfellows. Halli Casser-Jayne. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-9765960-3-5. Archived from the original on July 5, 2023. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  117. ^ Sabato, Larry J. (1998). "Washingtonpost.com Special Report: Clinton Accused". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 27, 2020. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  118. ^ a b "Carter Appears Victor Over Ford". Toledo Blade. Toledo, Ohio. November 3, 1976. Archived from the original on November 22, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  119. ^ Burke, John P. (2009). "The Contemporary Presidency: The Obama Presidential Transition: An Early Assessment". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 39 (3): 574–604. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2009.03691.x. ISSN 0360-4918. JSTOR 41427379.
  120. ^ a b Skinner, Richard (October 5, 2016). "Jimmy Carter changed presidential transitions forever". Vox. Archived from the original on March 11, 2021. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
  121. ^ a b Burke, John P. (2004). Becoming President : The Bush Transition, 2000–2003. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 12, 18. ISBN 978-1-58826-292-9.
  122. ^ "Carter in Washington, Meets Lynn, Rumsfield". Toledo Blade. Toledo, Ohio. November 22, 1976. Archived from the original on November 26, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  123. ^ "Ford Promises Carter Transition Cooperation". Toledo Blade. Toledo, Ohio. November 23, 1976. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  124. ^ Eksterowicz, Anthony J.; Hastedt, Glenn (1998). "Modern Presidential Transitions: Problems, Pitfalls, and Lessons for Success". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 28 (2): 299–319. ISSN 0360-4918. JSTOR 27551861. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  125. ^ "Carter Announces Nominees For 6 More Top Posts". Toledo Blade. Toledo, Ohio. January 19, 1977. Archived from the original on November 9, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  126. ^ "Carter to quit peanut business". The Register-Guard. Eugene, Oregon. January 4, 1977. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  127. ^ "48TH INAUGURAL CEREMONIES". United States Senate. Archived from the original on September 13, 2021. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  128. ^ "Executive Orders". archives.gov. October 25, 2010. Archived from the original on September 22, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  129. ^ "Online NewsHour: Remembering Vietnam: Carter's Pardon". PBS. Archived from the original on February 28, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  130. ^ Kaufman, Burton I.; Kaufman, Scott (2006). "A Growing Sense of Crisis". The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr (2nd ed.). Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-7006-1471-4.
  131. ^ a b "Jimmy Carter Biography and Interview". achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on February 22, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  132. ^ "Jimmy Carter and the Iranian Hostage Crisis". White House Historical Association. Archived from the original on September 3, 2015. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
  133. ^ Baker, Peter (March 18, 2023). "A Four-Decade Secret: The Untold Story of Sabotaging Jimmy Carter's Re-election". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 18, 2023. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  134. ^ Kenneth Earl Morris, ed. Jimmy Carter, American Moralist ( University of Georgia Press, 1996).
  135. ^ "Maine college to auction off former White House solar panels". October 28, 2004. Archived from the original on January 22, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
  136. ^ Burdick, Dave (January 27, 2009). "White House Solar Panels: What Ever Happened To Carter's Solar Thermal Water Heater? (VIDEO)". HuffPost. Archived from the original on September 4, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
  137. ^ Shirley, Craig (October 8, 2010). "Days of 'Malaise' and Jimmy Carter's Solar Panels". Fox News. Archived from the original on November 22, 2014. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  138. ^ Relyea, Harold; Carr, Thomas P. (2003). The executive branch, creation and reorganization. Nova Publishers. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-59033-610-6.
  139. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (29 September 1977)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  140. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (13 October 2021)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on November 5, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  141. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (12 January 1978)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  142. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (11 April 1978)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  143. ^ Kaufman, Burton Ira (1993). The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-7006-0572-9. OCLC 26359258.
  144. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan Message to the Congress Transmitting the Plan. (1 March 1979)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  145. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Energy Address to the Nation. (5 April 1979)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  146. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (30 April 1979)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  147. ^ a b ""Crisis of Confidence" Speech (July 15, 1979)". Miller Center, University of Virginia. October 20, 2016. Archived from the original (text and video) on July 21, 2009.
  148. ^ "Jimmy Carter". American Experience. PBS. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  149. ^ Cutler Cleveland (January 24, 2007). "Jimmy Carter's "malaise speech"". The Encyclopedia of Earth. Archived from the original on July 11, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  150. ^ Adam Clymer (July 18, 1979). "Speech Lifts Carter Rating to 37%; Public Agrees on Confidence Crisis; Responsive Chord Struck". The New York Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  151. ^ "American Experience". PBS. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
  152. ^ Weintraub, Walter (1986). Political Psychology 7: Profiles of American Presidents as Revealed in Their Public Statements: The Presidential News Conferences of Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan. International Society of Political Psychology. pp. 285–295.
  153. ^ W. Kolb, Robert (2008). Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society. SAGE Publications. p. 1305. ISBN 9781452265698. Archived from the original on April 7, 2022. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  154. ^ E. Rosenfeld, Paul; Feng, Lydia; Andrew, William (2011). Risks of Hazardous Wastes. William Andrew. ISBN 9781437778434. Archived from the original on April 7, 2022. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  155. ^ Zelizer, pp. 53–55
  156. ^ "The 'Georgia Mafia' . Jimmy Carter". WGBH American Experience. PBS. Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  157. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (23 February 1977)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  158. ^ "Commentary: New president's 100 days of pressure – CNN.com". CNN. October 28, 2008. Archived from the original on December 3, 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  159. ^ Biven, W. Carl (2002). Jimmy Carter's Economy: Policy in an Age of Limits. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-2738-3. p. 81
  160. ^ Carter, Jimmy Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis, p. 8, (2005), Simon & Schuster
  161. ^ Pincus, Walter (April 1, 1977). "When a Campaign Vow Crashes into a Pork Barrel". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2008.
  162. ^ "Jimmy Carter: Water Resource Projects Message to the Congress". presidency.ucsb.edu. Archived from the original on August 28, 2016. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  163. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Democratic National Committee Dinner Remarks at the Fundraising Dinner in New York City. (23 June 1977)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on October 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  164. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (28 July 1977)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  165. ^ Bourne, p.436
  166. ^ Carter, Jimmy (May 11, 1979). "Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan Remarks on the House of Representatives Disapproval of the Plan (10 May 1979)". American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  167. ^ "Carter's Clash With Congress on Gas Plan". The New York Times. May 15, 1979. Archived from the original on May 31, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  168. ^ "The President's News Conference (25 July 1979)". American Presidency Project. July 25, 1979. Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  169. ^ Roberts, Steven V. (August 5, 1979). "Carter and the Congress: Doubt and Distrust Prevail". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  170. ^ a b "1988 Statistical Abstract of the United States" (PDF). Department of Commerce. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  171. ^ a b c Bourne, p. 447.
  172. ^ Jim Jubak (April 1, 2008). "Is '70s-style stagflation returning?". Jubak's Journal. MSN. Archived from the original on August 20, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  173. ^ Bourne, p.422
  174. ^ "The Inflation of the 1970s: November 21, 1978". University of California at Berkeley and National Bureau of Economic Research. December 19, 1995. Archived from the original on February 19, 1997. Retrieved March 18, 2012.
  175. ^ "The Outlook for U.S. Oil Dependence" (PDF). U.S. Department of Energy. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 13, 2017. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  176. ^ "United States v. Society of Independent Gasoline Marketers of America". Archived from the original on June 28, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  177. ^ Vietor, Richard H. K. Contrived Competition: Regulation and Deregulation in America. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-43679-4. OCLC 897163998.
  178. ^ Cannon, James R.; Richey, Franklin D. (2012). Practical Applications in Business Aviation Management. Government Institutes. ISBN 978-1-60590-770-3.
  179. ^ Philpott, Tom (August 17, 2011). "Beer Charts of the Day". Mother Jones. Archived from the original on December 18, 2011. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  180. ^ Association, Brewers (April 5, 2022). "Brewers Association Releases Annual Craft Brewing Industry Production Report and Top 50 Producing Craft Brewing Companies for 2021". Brewers Association. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved February 19, 2023.
  181. ^ Multiple sources * Reinhold, Robert (April 17, 1976). "Carter proposes U.S. health plan; says he favors mandatory insurance financed from wage and general taxes". The New York Times. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 21, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2017. Although Mr. Carter left some details a bit vague today, his proposal seemed almost identical to the so-called Kennedy-Corman health security plan. His position on the issue is now substantially the same as that of his chief rivals, Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, Senator Henry M. Jackson and Representative Morris K. Udall. All three are co-sponsors of the Kennedy-Corman bill. * Auerbach, Stuart (April 17, 1976). "Carter gives broad outline for national health plan; cost unknown". The Washington Post. p. A1. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2022. The outlines of Carter's program are close to one sponsored by Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) and strongly supported by organized labor. * "Carter urges universal health plan". Chicago Tribune. United Press International. April 17, 1976. p. 4. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2022. Although Carter didn't provide an estimate of what his health plan would cost taxpayers, it features many proposals similar to plans suggested by others, including Sen. Edward Kennedy which are estimated to cost at least $40 billion annually.
  182. ^ "Hospital cost control". Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 95th Congress 1st Session....1977. Vol. 33. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly. 1978. pp. 499–507. ISSN 0095-6007. OCLC 1564784. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  183. ^ "National health insurance". Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 96th Congress 1st Session....1979. Vol. 35. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly. 1980. pp. 536–540. ISSN 0095-6007. OCLC 1564784. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  184. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "National Health Plan Remarks Announcing Proposed Legislation. (12 June 1979)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  185. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "National Health Plan Message to the Congress on Proposed Legislation. (12 June 1979)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  186. ^ "Hospital cost control legislation dies". Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 95th Congress 2nd Session....1978. Vol. 34. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly. 1979. pp. 619–625. ISSN 0095-6007. OCLC 1564784. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  187. ^ "House kills Carter hospital cost control plan". Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 96th Congress 1st Session....1979. Vol. 35. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly. 1980. pp. 512–518. ISSN 0095-6007. OCLC 1564784. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  188. ^ Zelizer, Julian (2010). Jimmy Carter. Times Books. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-8050-8957-8.
  189. ^ Carter, Jimmy (1982). Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President. Bantam Books. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-0-553-05023-3.
  190. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Elementary and Secondary Education Remarks Announcing the Administration's Proposals to the Congress. (28 February 1978)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  191. ^ "Department of Education Outlined". Associated Press. February 9, 1979. Archived from the original on October 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  192. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Department of Education Organization Act Statement on Signing S. 210 Into Law. (17 October 1979)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on September 2, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  193. ^ "Education Department Created". United Press International. October 18, 1979. Retrieved August 30, 2021.[permanent dead link]
  194. ^ "A Historical Perspective". ilheadstart.org. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  195. ^ Berube, M.R. (1991). American Presidents and Education. Greenwood. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-313-27848-8. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  196. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "15th Anniversary of Project Head Start Remarks at a White House Reception. (12 March 1980)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on October 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  197. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Brownsville, Texas Remarks at a Rally With Area Residents. (1 November 1980)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  198. ^ Alter, p. 388–417.
  199. ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 53–56.
  200. ^ Herring, p. 841–842.
  201. ^ Jørgen Jensehaugen. Arab–Israeli Diplomacy under Carter: The US, Israel and the Palestinians (2018) p. 178, quoted on H-DIPLO Archived July 4, 2019, at the Wayback Machine)
  202. ^ "United Nations Remarks at a Working Luncheon for Officials of African Nations". American Presidency Project. October 4, 1977. Archived from the original on March 11, 2018. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  203. ^ "The President's News Conference". American Presidency Project. October 27, 1977. Archived from the original on October 23, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  204. ^ Kaufman, Michael T. (March 31, 1978). "Carter Trip to Nigeria Culminates Long Effort to Improve Relations". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 31, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  205. ^ a b "Presidents' Travels to Nigeria (31 March — 3 April)". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  206. ^ "Carter Seeks Talks Including All Sides in Rhodesia Conflict". The New York Times. April 3, 1978. Archived from the original on October 12, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  207. ^ "Conservatives Win British Vote; Margaret Thatcher First Woman to Head a European Government". The New York Times. May 4, 1979. Archived from the original on September 7, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  208. ^ "Rhodesian Election Ends with Turnout Put at 65 Percent". The New York Times. April 25, 1979. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  209. ^ "Fight Over Rhodesia Sanctions Reflects Carter Bid to Save Africa Policy". The New York Times. May 14, 1979. Archived from the original on July 3, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  210. ^ "Rhodesia, South Africa Hail Move In Senate to End Curb on Salisbury". The New York Times. May 17, 1979. Archived from the original on October 12, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  211. ^ "Carter Promises to Stop Sanctions After Rhodesia Political Settlement". The New York Times. December 4, 1979. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  212. ^ Wachman, Alan M. (1984). "Carter's Constitutional Conundrum: An Examination of the President's Unilateral Termination of a Treaty". The Fletcher Forum. 8 (2): 427–457. ISSN 0147-0981. JSTOR 45331164.
  213. ^ Walsh, Edward (December 16, 1978). "U.S. to Normalize Ties With Peking, End Its Defense Treaty With Taiwan". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 11, 2023.
  214. ^ Herring, pp. 839–840.
  215. ^ Herring, pp. 855–856.
  216. ^ Strong, Robert A. (October 4, 2016). "Jimmy Carter: Foreign Affairs". Miller Center. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  217. ^ "Report: U.S. Arms Transfers to Indonesia 1975–1997". World Policy Institute. March 1997. Archived from the original on February 26, 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  218. ^ Dumbrell, John (1995). The Carter Presidency: A Re-evaluation (2nd ed.). Manchester, England, UK: Manchester University Press. pp. 187, 191. ISBN 978-0-7190-4693-3. Archived from the original on April 10, 2022. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  219. ^ Carter, Jimmy (September 10, 2007). "Fmr. President Jimmy Carter on "Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid," Iraq, Greeting the Shah of Iran at the White House, Selling Weapons to Indonesia During the Occupation of East Timor, and More". Democracy Now! (Interview). Interviewed by Amy Goodman. Archived from the original on July 30, 2019. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  220. ^ Ball, Nicole; Lettenberg, Milton (February 1979). "The foreign arms sales of the Carter administration". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 35 (2). Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science: 31–36. Bibcode:1979BuAtS..35b..31B. doi:10.1080/00963402.1979.11458586. Archived from the original on February 6, 2021. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  221. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (9 March 1977)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on October 11, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  222. ^ "Carter Summons General in Korea Over Criticism of Withdrawal Plan". The New York Times. May 20, 1977. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  223. ^ Weinraub, Bernard (May 22, 1977). "Carter Disciplines Gen. Singlaub, Who Attacked His Policy on Korea". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  224. ^ "Armed Forces: General on the Carpet". Time. May 30, 1977. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  225. ^ "Carter Defends Plan to Reduce Forces in Korea". The New York Times. May 27, 1977. Archived from the original on July 2, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  226. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Seoul, Republic of Korea Joint Communiqué Issued at the Conclusion of Meetings With President Park. (1 July 1979)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  227. ^ Smith, Terence (April 22, 1978). "Carter Cuts Total of U.S. Troops To Leave South Korea This Year (21 April 1978)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  228. ^ "Carter Lauds Shah On His Leadership". The New York Times. November 16, 1977. Archived from the original on July 2, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  229. ^ "Jimmy Carter Toasts the Shah". Voices and Visions. December 31, 1977. Archived from the original on March 24, 2023. Retrieved March 24, 2023.
  230. ^ The Making of US Foreign Policy. Manchester University Press. 1997. p. 72.
  231. ^ Gill Guererro, Javier (2016). The Carter Administration and the Fall of Iran's Pahlavi Dynasty US-Iran Relations on the Brink of the 1979 Revolution. Palgrave Macmillan US. p. 57.
  232. ^ Bourne, p. 454.
  233. ^ Bourne, p. 452.
  234. ^ D. Sarna, Jonathan (December 2, 2009). "How Hanukkah Came To The White House". The Forward. Archived from the original on March 19, 2015. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  235. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "American Hostages in Iran Remarks to State Department Employees. (7 December 1979)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  236. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Executive Order 12205—Economic Sanctions Against Iran (7 April 1980)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  237. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Sanctions Against Iran Remarks Announcing U.S. Actions. (7 April 1980)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  238. ^ "Carter Cuts Ties With Iran". The Harvard Crimson. April 8, 1980. Archived from the original on August 9, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  239. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Address to the Nation on the Rescue Attempt for American Hostages in Iran (24 April 1980)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  240. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Rescue Attempt for American Hostages in Iran White House Statement. (25 April 1980)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  241. ^ Bourne, p. 460.
  242. ^ "Declassified CIA memo predicted the 1980 October Surprise". MuckRock. July 24, 2017. Archived from the original on November 13, 2021. Retrieved November 13, 2021.
  243. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (8 February 1977)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on November 5, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  244. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (13 June 1977)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  245. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (30 December 1977)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  246. ^ "U.S. And Soviet Sign Strategic Arms Treaty; Carter Urges Congress To Support Accord". The New York Times. June 19, 1979. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  247. ^ Glass, Andrew (June 18, 2015). "Jimmy Carter signs Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, June 18, 1979". Politico. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  248. ^ "Jimmy Carter and the Second Yemenite War: A Smaller Shock of 1979?". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Archived from the original on November 22, 2021. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  249. ^ "The State of the Union Address Delivered Before a Joint Session of the Congress. (January 23, 1980)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on September 11, 2018. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  250. ^ a b c d Kaplan, Robert D. (2008). Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Knopf Doubleday. pp. 115–117. ISBN 978-0-307-54698-2.
  251. ^ a b c d Kepel, Gilles (2006). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. I.B. Tauris. pp. 138–139, 142–144. ISBN 978-1-84511-257-8.
  252. ^ Blight, James G. (2012). Becoming Enemies: U.S.-Iran Relations and the Iran-Iraq War, 1979–1988. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-1-4422-0830-8.
  253. ^ a b c d e f Riedel, Bruce (2014). What We Won: America's Secret War in Afghanistan, 1979–1989. Brookings Institution Press. pp. ix–xi, 21–22, 93, 98–99, 105. ISBN 978-0-8157-2595-4.
  254. ^ a b c Tobin, Conor (April 2020). "The Myth of the 'Afghan Trap': Zbigniew Brzezinski and Afghanistan, 1978–1979". Diplomatic History. 44 (2). Oxford University Press: 237–264. doi:10.1093/dh/dhz065.
  255. ^ a b Gates, Bob (2007). From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. Simon and Schuster. pp. 145–147. ISBN 978-1-4165-4336-7. When asked whether he expected that the revelations in his memoir would inspire the conspiracy theories surrounding the U.S. aid program, Gates replied: "No, because there was no basis in fact for an allegation the administration tried to draw the Soviets into Afghanistan militarily." See Gates, email communication with John Bernell White Jr., October 15, 2011, as cited in White, John Bernell (May 2012). The Strategic Mind Of Zbigniew Brzezinski: How A Native Pole Used Afghanistan To Protect His Homeland (PDF) (Thesis). pp. 45–46, 82. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved September 11, 2016. cf. Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin. p. 581. ISBN 978-1-59420-007-6. Contemporary memos—particularly those written in the first days after the Soviet invasion—make clear that while Brzezinski was determined to confront the Soviets in Afghanistan through covert action, he was also very worried the Soviets would prevail. ... Given this evidence and the enormous political and security costs that the invasion imposed on the Carter administration, any claim that Brzezinski lured the Soviets into Afghanistan warrants deep skepticism.
  256. ^ Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin Group. p. 58. ISBN 9781594200076.
  257. ^ Carter, James. "Jimmy Carter State of the Union Address 1980 (23 January 1980)". Selected Speeches of Jimmy Carter. Jimmy Carter Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on October 15, 2004. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  258. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Jimmy Carter: The State of the Union Address Delivered Before a Joint Session of the Congress". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 14, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  259. ^ Zelizer, p. 103.
  260. ^ Leuchtenburg, William E. (2015). "Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter". The American President. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 577. ISBN 978-0-19-517616-2.
  261. ^ Eaton, Joseph (November 2016). "Reconsidering the 1980 Moscow Olympic Boycott: American Sports Diplomacy in East Asian Perspective". Diplomatic History. 40 (5): 845–864. doi:10.1093/dh/dhw026. JSTOR 26376807. Archived from the original on October 23, 2022. Retrieved June 20, 2022.
  262. ^ Treadaway, Dan (August 5, 1996). "Carter stresses role of Olympics in promoting global harmony". Emory Report. 48 (37). Archived from the original on June 22, 2023. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  263. ^ Toohey, Kristine (November 8, 2007). The Olympic Games: A Social Science Perspective. CABI. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-84593-355-5. Archived from the original on July 5, 2023. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  264. ^ Sargent, Daniel (July 24, 2021). "Postmodern America Didn't Deserve Jimmy Carter". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on November 21, 2021. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  265. ^ Gaddis, John Lewis (1997). We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-878070-0.
  266. ^ "Travels of President Jimmy Carter". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on December 31, 2018. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  267. ^ "Most Important Presidential Visits: No. 7 Jimmy Carter – Iran". realclearworld. Archived from the original on June 1, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
  268. ^ D. Hershey Jr., Robert (August 15, 2013). "Bert Lance, Carter Adviser, Dies at 82". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  269. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (September 6, 2008). "Paul Curran, 75, Corruption Foe, Dies". The New York Times. p. A30. Archived from the original on April 25, 2009. Retrieved September 6, 2008.
  270. ^ "Paul J. Curran, Special Counsel, Litigation, Kaye Scholer". Archived from the original on October 18, 2005. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  271. ^ "I Have a Job to Do". Time. April 2, 1979. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  272. ^ Pound, Edward T. (October 17, 1979). "Carter's Business Cleared in Inquiry on Campaign Funds". The New York Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on July 22, 2018. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
  273. ^ Zeizler, p. 112-113.
  274. ^ Zeizler, p. 115.
  275. ^ "Bid by Carter to deny Reagan funds rejected". The Michigan Daily. July 25, 1980. Archived from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
  276. ^ Carter, Jimmy (2005). Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis. Simon and Schuster. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7432-8457-8.
  277. ^ Allis, Sam (February 18, 2009). "Chapter 4: Sailing into the Wind: Losing a quest for the top, finding a new freedom". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
  278. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (13 February 1980)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  279. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "The President's News Conference (14 March 1980)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  280. ^ Hayward, p. 497.
  281. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Remarks Accepting the Presidential Nomination at the 1980 Democratic National Convention in New York (14 August 1980)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on October 11, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  282. ^ "Carter Blows the Horn Of the Wrong Horatio". The New York Times. August 15, 1980. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
  283. ^ Reid, T. R.; Broder, David S. (August 13, 1980). "Kennedy Rips Reagan, Electrifies Convention". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 28, 2017. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  284. ^ "John Anderson, Independent Who Ran for President, Dies at 95". Bloomberg.com. December 4, 2017. Archived from the original on December 4, 2017. Retrieved December 4, 2017.
  285. ^ "Gallup Presidential Election Trial-Heat Trends, 1936–2004 Gallup". June 30, 2017. Archived from the original on June 30, 2017. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
  286. ^ Galster, Steve (October 9, 2001). "Afghanistan: Lessons from the Last War". The National Security Advisor. Archived from the original on September 6, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  287. ^ "Billygate – 1980". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 10, 2019. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
  288. ^ "Nation: Kraft Drops Out". Time. September 29, 1980. Archived from the original on March 8, 2008. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
  289. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Presidential Debate in Cleveland (28 October 1980)". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on October 9, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  290. ^ Harwood, John (October 12, 2008). "History Suggests McCain Faces an Uphill Battle". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 4, 2017. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
  291. ^ Stacks, John F. (December 1, 1980). "Where the Polls Went Wrong". Time. Archived from the original on October 9, 2008. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
  292. ^ "Other stars emerge other than those on the presidential ticket". Gannett News Service. November 4, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2021.[permanent dead link]
  293. ^ "New book pins 'debategate' on Dem". Politico. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
  294. ^ Kazin, Michael; Edwards, Rebecca; Rothman, Adam (November 9, 2009). The Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. (Two volume set). Princeton University Press. p. 311. ISBN 978-1-4008-3356-6. Archived from the original on July 5, 2023. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  295. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "1980 Presidential Election Remarks on the Outcome of the Election". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on September 1, 2020. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  296. ^ Carter, Jimmy (October 14, 2008). Beyond the White House: Waging Peace, Fighting Disease, Building Hope. Simon & Schuster. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4165-5881-1.
  297. ^ "Carter: Begin set to compromise". Chicago Tribune. October 15, 1981. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2021.
  298. ^ Farrell, William E. (March 8, 1983). "Carter Meets P.L.O. Officials in Egypt". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 6, 2021.
  299. ^ Creekmore, Marion V. (2006). A Moment of Crisis: Jimmy Carter, The Power of a Peacemaker, and North Korea's Nuclear Ambitions. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-414-9.
  300. ^ Kaplan, Fred (May 2004). "Rolling Blunder". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on December 5, 2016. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
  301. ^ Brooke, James (September 5, 2003). "Carter Issues Warning on North Korea Standoff". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 15, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2021 – via The Carter Center.
  302. ^ "President Lee Hosts Former US President Jimmy Carter". Office of the President Republic of China (Taiwan). March 30, 1999. Archived from the original on May 22, 2023. Retrieved May 23, 2023.
  303. ^ "Israel 'has 150 nuclear weapons'". BBC News. May 26, 2008. Archived from the original on November 14, 2011. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  304. ^ "Jimmy Carter: Israel's 'Apartheid' Policies Worse Than South Africa's". Haaretz. December 11, 2006. Archived from the original on October 12, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  305. ^ Brinkley, pp. 99–123.
  306. ^ "What is The Elders?". The Elders. Archived from the original on March 28, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
  307. ^ "Our Work". The Elders. Archived from the original on March 27, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  308. ^ "Jimmy Carter blocked from meeting Darfur chief". Reuters. October 3, 2007. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  309. ^ Ian Timberlake (May 27, 2012). "Sudan ready to withdraw troops from Abyei: Jimmy Carter". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  310. ^ "Jimmy Carter and Lakhdar Brahimi in Sudan to support peace efforts". The Elders. May 27, 2012. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  311. ^ "Jimmy Carter". The Elders. Archived from the original on March 5, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  312. ^ "Annan, Carter say barred from Zimbabwe". Reuters. November 22, 2008. Archived from the original on May 4, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  313. ^ "PR-USA.net". PR-USA.net. November 1, 2007. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
  314. ^ "Jimmy Carter speaks to Forward Magazine". Forward Magazine. July 25, 2015. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  315. ^ Epatko, Larisa (June 20, 2012). "Jimmy Carter: If Egypt's Ruling Military Goes Through With Plan, Same as Coup". PBS. Archived from the original on October 12, 2017. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  316. ^ "Freed American Arrives Home from North Korea". CNN. August 27, 2010. Archived from the original on June 15, 2021. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
  317. ^ McCurry, Justin (August 27, 2010). "North Korea releases US prisoner after talks with Jimmy Carter". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on September 15, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  318. ^ Hallerman, Tamar (August 10, 2017). "Jimmy Carter presses U.S., North Korea to tone down escalating rhetoric". ajc.com. Archived from the original on December 16, 2017. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  319. ^ Bowden, John (October 21, 2017). "Carter volunteers to help solve tensions with North Korea". The Hill. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  320. ^ Thomas, Helen (March 16, 1981). "Too early to criticize Reagan, says Carter". United Press International. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 6, 2021.
  321. ^ "Carter backs Reagan on neutron weapon". United Press International. September 3, 1981. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  322. ^ "Carter to Lobby Senate on AWACS". The New York Times. October 12, 1981. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  323. ^ Schmetzer, Uli (March 22, 1987). "Carter: Reagan Not Tending To Mideast". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  324. ^ "Former President Jimmy Carter says the massacre of some..." United Press International. September 21, 1982. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  325. ^ "Former President Jimmy Carter criticized the Reagan administration Sunday..." United Press International. Miami. December 23, 1984. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  326. ^ Shanker, Thom (April 12, 1985). "'Star Wars' May Hurt Talks, Carter Warns". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  327. ^ "Carter: Avoid force against terrorism". United Press International. July 14, 1985. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  328. ^ "Former President Jimmy Carter told students Monday that President..." United Press International. February 9, 1987. Archived from the original on June 17, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  329. ^ Hanrahan, John (September 30, 1987). "Former President Jimmy Carter declared Wednesday he is strongly..." United Press International. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  330. ^ Quinn, Matthew C. (October 17, 1987). "Carter criticizes Reagan's gulf policy". United Press International. Archived from the original on August 21, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  331. ^ McCormick, Patrick (January 18, 1989). "Former President Gerald Ford Wednesday said the Washington press..." United Press International. Archived from the original on September 8, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  332. ^ Felsenthal, Carol (May 25, 2011). "Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton: They Genuinely Dislike Each Other". HuffPost. Archived from the original on October 25, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  333. ^ Jimmy Carter, "Just War – or a Just War?" Archived January 27, 2022, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, March 9, 2003. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  334. ^ "Jimmy Carter: Blair Subservient to Bush". The Washington Post. Associated Press. August 27, 2006. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved July 5, 2008.
  335. ^ Frank Lockwood, "Carter calls Bush administration worst ever" Archived September 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, May 19, 2007. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  336. ^ "Carter: Anti-Bush remarks 'careless or misinterpreted'". CNN. Associated Press. May 21, 2007. Archived from the original on June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  337. ^ "'Carter is irrelevant,' Bush administration shoots back". CNN. Associated Press. May 20, 2007. Archived from the original on May 23, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  338. ^ "Jimmy Carter Speaks to Forward Magazine". Forward Magazine. January 2009. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
  339. ^ Alarkon, Walter (January 28, 2009). "Jimmy Carter Says Obama Will Be 'Outstanding'". The Hill. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  340. ^ Bingham, Amy (June 25, 2012). "Jimmy Carter Accuses U.S. of 'Widespread Abuse of Human Rights'". ABC News. Archived from the original on June 26, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2012. ABC quotes came from a NY Times June 25, 2012 op-ed Archived October 11, 2021, at the Wayback Machine written by Carter
  341. ^ Bluestein, Greg; Galloway, Jim (July 18, 2013). "Your daily jolt: 'America has no functioning democracy,' says Jimmy Carter". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved June 4, 2021.
  342. ^ Peter Schmitz (July 17, 2013). "NSA-Affäre: Ex-Präsident Carter verdammt US-Schnüffelei". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on July 29, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  343. ^ "Ex-President Carter: Give Trump credit on forcing immigration debate". Fox News. September 14, 2017. Archived from the original on September 25, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  344. ^ Thomsen, Jacqueline (October 21, 2017). "Jimmy Carter: 'I would rather see all the players stand during' anthem". The Hill. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  345. ^ Dowd, Maureen (October 21, 2017). "Jimmy Carter Lusts for a Trump Posting". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  346. ^ Chavez, Nicole. "Jimmy Carter wants to partner with Trump". CNN. Archived from the original on December 9, 2020. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  347. ^ "President Trump Called Former President Carter To Talk About China". WABE. April 14, 2019. Archived from the original on September 14, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  348. ^ Sperling, Godfrey Jr. (March 10, 1981). "Mondale in '84: he may run if Jimmy Carter doesn't". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  349. ^ Thomas, Helen (April 25, 1984). "Rosalynn Carter: Bitter at 1980 loss: Wishes her husband would run again". United Press International. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  350. ^ "Carter Backs Mondale For Presidency in 1984". Chicago Tribune. May 11, 1982. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  351. ^ "Mondale wins Carter hometown". United Press International. March 14, 1984. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  352. ^ "Carter Predicts That Reagan Will Avoid Debating Mondale". The New York Times. June 14, 1984. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  353. ^ "Campaign Notes; Carter Vows to Shun Convention Spotlight". The New York Times. June 28, 1984. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  354. ^ Rosenberg, Carol (November 7, 1984). "Former President Jimmy Carter said Wednesday Walter Mondale's defeat..." United Press International. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  355. ^ "Former President Jimmy Carter said today Vice President George..." United Press International. March 19, 1987. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  356. ^ Mackay, Robert (July 16, 1988). "Carter predicts unified convention". United Press International. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  357. ^ "The Carter Constituency". The Washington Post. July 21, 1988. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  358. ^ "Carter predicts tough times for Bush". United Press International. November 10, 1988. Archived from the original on October 11, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  359. ^ De Witt, Karen (February 23, 1992). "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Georgia; Carter Welcomes Tsongas to Plains". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  360. ^ "Carter says Clinton election would be good for Japan-U.S. relations". United Press International. April 13, 1992. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  361. ^ Ifill, Gwen (May 21, 1992). "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN; Carter, With Clinton at His Side, Praises the Candidate's Qualities". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  362. ^ Glasser, Steve (August 19, 1992). "Clinton and Gore help Carter build house". United Press International. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  363. ^ Ifill, Gwen (August 20, 1992). "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Assails G.O.P. Attacks Aimed at Wife". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  364. ^ "Carter ready to consult with Clinton". United Press International. November 6, 1992. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  365. ^ "Former President Carter endorses Gore". United Press International. November 1, 2000. Archived from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  366. ^ Thoreau, Jackson (2007). Born to Cheat: How Bush, Cheney, Rove & Co. Broke the Rules – From the Sandlot to the White House. Do Something Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-881365-53-2.
  367. ^ "Poll: Majority of Americans accept Bush as legitimate president". December 13, 2000. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  368. ^ "Carter: Kerry 'the president we need now'". CNN. July 26, 2004. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  369. ^ "Jimmy Carter fears repeat of election fiasco in Florida". The Guardian. September 28, 2004. Archived from the original on October 11, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  370. ^ "Carter praises Obama". CNN. January 30, 2008. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  371. ^ "Carter hints at supporting Obama". CNN. April 3, 2008. Archived from the original on April 7, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  372. ^ "Carter: After June 3, it will be time for Clinton to 'give it up'". CNN. May 26, 2008. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  373. ^ "Carter: McCain 'milking' POW status". United Press International. August 28, 2008. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  374. ^ "Carter: McCain 'milking' POW time". ABC News. August 30, 2008. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  375. ^ Freedland, Jonathan (June 4, 2008). "US elections: Jimmy Carter tells Barack Obama not to pick Hillary Clinton as running mate". The Guardian. Archived from the original on November 16, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  376. ^ "Could Jimmy Carter's Comments Doom Mitt Romney?". International Business Timegs. September 16, 2011. Archived from the original on September 24, 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  377. ^ Yahoo News, Jimmy Carter wants Mitt Romney to be the Republican nominee Archived December 12, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, September 16, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  378. ^ Camia, Catalina (August 7, 2012). "Jimmy Carter to speak by video at Dem convention". USA Today. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  379. ^ Schleifer, Theodore (July 8, 2015). "Jimmy Carter: Trump's comments are 'very stupid'". CNN. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 6, 2021.
  380. ^ Hensch, Mark (November 2, 2015). "Carter: Dems, GOP 'hardly speak' now". The Hill. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. Retrieved September 6, 2021.
  381. ^ Condon, Stephanie (February 3, 2016). "Jimmy Carter: I would choose Donald Trump over Ted Cruz". CBS News. Archived from the original on October 21, 2021. Retrieved September 6, 2021.
  382. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (May 24, 2016). "Jimmy Carter, Seeing Resurgence of Racism, Plans Baptist Conference for Unity". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022. Retrieved September 6, 2021.
  383. ^ Wagner, John (June 28, 2019). "Jimmy Carter says Trump wouldn't be president without help from Russia". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 29, 2019. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  384. ^ Lewis, Sophie (June 28, 2019). "Jimmy Carter calls Trump an 'illegitimate president' due to Russian interference". CBS News. Archived from the original on March 24, 2020. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
  385. ^ "Conversation with Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale". C-SPAN. June 28, 2019. Archived from the original on April 20, 2020. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
  386. ^ Hawkins, Derek (May 9, 2017). "'Y'all see why I voted for him?': Jimmy Carter says he was a Bernie Sanders supporter". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2023.
  387. ^ "Live updates: U.S. Capitol is on lockdown as protesters clash with police and breach the building". The Washington Post. January 6, 2021. Archived from the original on January 6, 2021. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
  388. ^ "All living former presidents condemn violence at the Capitol: 'A national tragedy'". Today. January 7, 2021. Archived from the original on January 7, 2021. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
  389. ^ "Former President Carter reflects on his inauguration, offers Biden, Harris insight in video". Fox 5 Atlanta. January 21, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  390. ^ Fountain, Henry, "Court to reconsider Trump-era decision that favored Alaska road project", The New York Times, November 11, 2022. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  391. ^ "Jimmy Carter criticizes FEMA's role in Katrina relief". wistv.com. September 21, 2005. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  392. ^ Robbins, Christopher (October 12, 2013). "Former President Carter joins effort to rebuild Sandy-ravaged Union Beach". Archived from the original on October 12, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  393. ^ Shelbourne, Mallory (September 10, 2017). "Former presidents fundraise for Irma disaster relief". The Hill. Archived from the original on April 28, 2019. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  394. ^ "Jimmy Carter: When the waters rise, so do our better angels". CNN. September 2, 2017. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  395. ^ "Timeline and History of The Carter Center [1981–1989]". The Carter Center. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  396. ^ "The Carter Center At 30 Years". GeorgiaTrend. October 31, 2012. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
  397. ^ "Waging Peace. Fighting Disease". The Carter Center. Archived from the original on January 6, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  398. ^ "African worm disease from dirty water nearly eradicated, says Jimmy Carter". CBS News. January 11, 2017. Archived from the original on November 21, 2021. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  399. ^ "Dracunculiasis eradication: "on the threshold of a historic achievement"". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on November 21, 2021. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  400. ^ "View Latest Worldwide Guinea Worm Case Totals". Carter Center. Archived from the original on December 19, 2018. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  401. ^ "You Gave of Yourself': Reagan Praises Carter at Library Dedication". Los Angeles Times. October 2, 1986. Archived from the original on September 7, 2015. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  402. ^ Reinhold, Robert (November 5, 1991). "4 Presidents Join Reagan in Dedicating His Library". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  403. ^ "Dedication of Bush Library Is Set for Today". The New York Times. November 6, 1997. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  404. ^ Newman, Maria (November 18, 2004). "Thousands Attend Dedication of Clinton's Presidential Library". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
  405. ^ "Clinton library open for business". BBC News. BBC. November 18, 2004. Archived from the original on January 22, 2010. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
  406. ^ "At George W. Bush library, five presidents meet in harmony". Los Angeles Times. April 25, 2013. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  407. ^ "At Mrs. King's Funeral, a Mix of Elegy and Politics". The New York Times. February 8, 2006. Archived from the original on August 10, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  408. ^ "Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum". fordlibrarymuseum.gov. January 3, 2007. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  409. ^ "Carter praises 'distinguished opponent' Ford at funeral". CBC News. January 3, 2007. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  410. ^ Dits, Joseph (August 20, 2018). "Habitat ceremony at Notre Dame is only chance to see Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter". South Bend Tribune. South Bend, Ind.: GateHouse Media. Archived from the original on November 16, 2019. Retrieved November 16, 2019.
  411. ^ Carla Hinton, Ex-president Jimmy Carter works to unite all Baptists, oklahoman.com, US, July 25, 2009
  412. ^ Cooperman, Alan (January 21, 2007). "Carter, Clinton Seek To Bring Together Moderate Baptists Exiles From Conservative Group Targeted". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 23, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  413. ^ "Honorary Chairs". World Justice Project. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  414. ^ Preserving Our Institutions (PDF) (Report). Continuity of Government Commission. June 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 28, 2019. Retrieved August 6, 2019 – via brookings.edu.
  415. ^ "Jimmy Carter's Sunday School Class". Maranatha Baptist Church. Archived from the original on May 19, 2019. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  416. ^ Watkins, Eli (June 3, 2019). "Jimmy Carter granted tenure at Emory University". CNN. Archived from the original on June 4, 2019. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  417. ^ Craig Daigle, "Beyond Camp David: Jimmy Carter, Palestinian Self-Determination, and Human Rights." Diplomatic History 42.5 (2018): 802-830.
  418. ^ "Carter Book Stirs Furor With Its View of Israelis' 'Apartheid'". The New York Times. December 14, 2006. Retrieved February 19, 2023.
  419. ^ a b c d "Jimmy Carter: Israel's 'Apartheid' Policies Worse Than South Africa's". Haaretz. November 12, 2006. Retrieved February 19, 2023.
  420. ^ "Amnesty says Israel is an apartheid state. Many Israeli politicians agree". The Guardian. February 5, 2022. Retrieved February 19, 2023.
  421. ^ "Books written by President and Mrs. Carter". jimmycarterlibrary.gov. Archived from the original on October 12, 2004.
  422. ^ "Jimmy Carter Painting Brings Over Half Million Dollars At Auction". June 27, 2017. Archived from the original on September 7, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
  423. ^ "Jimmy Carter – Biographical". The Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
  424. ^ a b "Jimmy Carter to welcome visitors to Dylan Thomas house". BBC News. BBC. November 9, 2011. Archived from the original on September 17, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  425. ^ Wilson, M.J. (June 27, 1977). "Jimmy Carter's Crusade for Dylan Thomas Wins a Supporter—his Grateful Widow, Caitlin". People. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  426. ^ "Dylan Thomas". Westminster Abbey. The Dean and Chapter of Westminster. 2015. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  427. ^ "Elvis Presley and Politics". Neatorama. July 15, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  428. ^ Elvis Presley, Reluctant Rebel: His Life and Our Times. David Luhrssen and Glen Jeansonne. 2011. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-313-35904-0. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  429. ^ Nash, Alanna (February 1, 2012). Elvis and the Memphis Mafia. Aurum. ISBN 978-1-84513-759-5. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  430. ^ Erin Overbey (August 16, 2011). "Takes: Elvis Presley on the Line". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on February 20, 2018. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  431. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Statement by the President on the Death of Elvis Presley". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on November 1, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  432. ^ O'Toole, Thomas (April 30, 1977). "UFO Over Georgia? Jimmy Logged One". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 9, 2021. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  433. ^ Kilgore, Ed (September 18, 2019). "Jimmy Carter Saw a UFO on This Day in 1973". New York. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  434. ^ "Official report by Carter to the International UFO Bureau" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on September 13, 2021. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  435. ^ Egelhof, Joseph (November 11, 1977). "Jimmy Carter's UFO". Boston Evening Globe. p. 15. Archived from the original on March 21, 2022. Retrieved October 1, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  436. ^ a b Somini Sengupta, "Carter Sadly Turns Back on National Baptist Body" Archived December 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, October 21, 2000. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  437. ^ a b Balmer, Randall (February 22, 2023). "Jimmy Carter Was America's Evangelical-in-Chief". Foreign Policy. Retrieved March 16, 2023.
  438. ^ Burns, Rebecca (June 1, 2016). "Pilgrimage to Plains: The faithful come from around the world to hear Jimmy Carter preach". Atlanta Magazine. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  439. ^ Hobbs, Herschel H. and Mullins, Edgar Young. (1978). The Axioms of Religion. Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman Press. Revised edition. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8054-1707-4.
  440. ^ Burke, Daniel (May 20, 2021). "Evangelicals and the American Presidency". PBS. Retrieved March 16, 2023.
  441. ^ Haberman, Clyde (October 28, 2018). "Religion and Right-Wing Politics: How Evangelicals Reshaped Elections". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 16, 2023. {{cite news}}: Unknown parameter |newsaper= ignored (help)
  442. ^ Green, Joshua (March 1, 2023). "How Evangelical Voters Swung From Carter to Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 16, 2023.
  443. ^ Carter, Jimmy; Richardson, Don (1998). Conversations with Carter. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-55587-801-6.
  444. ^ "Jimmy Carter Leaves Southern Baptists". ABC News. Retrieved October 12, 2022.
  445. ^ Stasson, Anneke (2014). "The Politicization of Family Life: How Headship Became Essential to Evangelical Identity in the Late Twentieth Century". Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation. 24: 100–138. doi:10.1525/rac.2014.24.1.100. S2CID 142760970.
  446. ^ Ellis, Blake A. “An Alternative Politics: Texas Baptists and the Rise of the Christian Right, 1975-1985.” The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, vol. 112, no. 4, 2009, pp. 361–86. JSTOR website Retrieved May 5, 2023.
  447. ^ Robert D. Hershey Jr (September 26, 1988). "Billy Carter Dies of Cancer at 51; Troubled Brother of a President". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 7, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  448. ^ Cash, John R. (1997). Johnny Cash, the Autobiography. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-274080-7.
  449. ^ "Berry Gordy". Hollywood Walk of Fame. October 25, 2019. Archived from the original on March 5, 2022. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  450. ^ Vejnoska, Jill (July 7, 2017). "Happy 71st wedding anniversary Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter!". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on April 1, 2019. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  451. ^ "Biography of Jimmy Carter". Jimmy Carter Library. July 25, 2018. Archived from the original on October 18, 2020. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  452. ^ a b c Jimmy Carter (2005). Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis. Simon and Schuster. pp. 84–. ISBN 978-0-7432-8457-8. My last book, Sharing Good Times, is dedicated "to Mary Prince, whom we love and cherish." Mary is a wonderful black woman who, as a teenager visiting a small town, was falsely accused of murder and defended by an assigned lawyer whom she first met on the day of the trial, when he advised her to plead guilty, promising a light sentence. She got life imprisonment instead ... A reexamination of the evidence and trial proceedings by the original judge revealed that she was completely innocent, and she was granted a pardon.
  453. ^ a b Chabbott, Sophia (March 19, 2015). "The Residence: Meet the Women Behind Presidential Families Kennedy, Johnson, Carter". Glamour. Archived from the original on May 9, 2015. Retrieved May 2, 2015. Rosalynn Carter, who believed Prince was wrongly convicted, secured a reprieve so Prince could join them in Washington. Prince was later granted a full pardon; to this day she occasionally babysits the Carters' grandkids.
  454. ^ Crawford, Clare (March 14, 1977). "A Story of Love and Rehabilitation: the Ex-Con in the White House". People. Archived from the original on June 23, 2015. Retrieved May 3, 2015.
  455. ^ Barnes, Dustin (October 19, 2019). "'Still going strong': Jimmy & Rosalynn Carter become longest-married presidential couple". USA Today. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
  456. ^ Hulse, Carl (May 11, 2010). "Veteran House Democrat Loses Seat in Primary". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  457. ^ Fantz, Ashley; Hassan, Carma (December 20, 2015). "Hours after death of grandson, Jimmy Carter reveals the news to his church". CNN. Archived from the original on December 20, 2015. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
  458. ^ Pramuk, Jacob (August 12, 2015). "Former President Jimmy Carter reveals he has cancer". New York City: CNBC. Archived from the original on August 12, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  459. ^ Olorunnipa, Toluse (August 20, 2015). "Jimmy Carter Says He's Being Treated for Cancer in Brain". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on August 21, 2015. Retrieved August 20, 2015.
  460. ^ "Statement from Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter" (Press release). The Carter Center. December 5, 2015. Archived from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  461. ^ Jacobo, Julia (May 13, 2019). "Former President Jimmy Carter undergoes surgery after breaking hip". ABC News. Archived from the original on October 7, 2019. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  462. ^ Osborne, Mark (October 6, 2019). "Former President Jimmy Carter requires 14 stitches after fall at home, 'feels fine'". ABC News. Archived from the original on October 22, 2019. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  463. ^ Hall, Kristin M. "Jimmy Carter was left with a black eye and needed 14 stitches after falling at his Georgia home". Business Insider. Archived from the original on January 4, 2020. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
  464. ^ Stracqualursi, Veronica; Sayers, Devon M.; Klein, Betsy (October 22, 2019). "Jimmy Carter hospitalized after fall at Georgia home". CNN. Archived from the original on October 22, 2019. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  465. ^ Judd, Alan (November 3, 2019). "In good humor, Jimmy Carter returns to Sunday school after fall". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  466. ^ Reeves, Jay (November 3, 2019). "former President Jimmy Carter is back teaching Sunday school". AP News. Archived from the original on November 4, 2019. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  467. ^ a b Duster, Chandelis (November 27, 2019). "Jimmy Carter released from hospital after two week stay". CNN. Archived from the original on November 29, 2019. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
  468. ^ "Pastor: Jimmy Carter 'Up and Walking' Post Brain Surgery". Voice of America. November 14, 2019. Archived from the original on November 14, 2019. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
  469. ^ Allen, Karma (November 11, 2019). "Former President Jimmy Carter admitted to hospital for brain surgery". ABC News. Archived from the original on November 12, 2019. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
  470. ^ Booker, Brakkton (December 3, 2019). "Jimmy Carter Hospitalized for Urinary Tract Infection". NPR. Archived from the original on October 11, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
  471. ^ "Jimmy Carter discharged from Georgia hospital after urinary tract infection". NPR. December 4, 2019. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
  472. ^ "Statement on President Carter's Health". Carter Center. February 18, 2023. Retrieved February 22, 2023.
  473. ^ Barrow, Bill (February 18, 2023). "Carter Center: Former President Jimmy Carter in hospice care". Associated Press News. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  474. ^ "Jimmy Carter enters hospice care. What is it?". Associated Press News. February 21, 2023. Retrieved February 18, 2024. Hospice care ... is reserved for those declared by two physicians to be terminally ill, with six months or less to live.
  475. ^ Stableford, Dylan (November 28, 2023). "Rosalynn Carter funeral: Jimmy Carter and all 5 living first ladies attend service". Yahoo! News. Retrieved February 18, 2024. In February, he decided to forgo further medical treatment for an undisclosed illness and entered hospice care at his home.
  476. ^ Judd, Donald (March 14, 2023). "Biden says Carter asked him to deliver his eulogy". CNN. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  477. ^ Reilly, Katie (January 20, 2017). "How Jimmy Carter Beat Cancer and Became the Oldest President to Attend an Inauguration". Time. Archived from the original on January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  478. ^ Jacobo, Julia (March 21, 2019). "Jimmy Carter is poised to be the president who has lived the longest in US history". ABC News. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  479. ^ Barrow, Bill (March 22, 2019). "Jimmy Carter's new milestone: Longest-lived U.S. president". The Detroit News. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  480. ^ Barrow, Bill (October 1, 2023). "Jimmy Carter turns 99 at home with Rosalynn and other family as tributes come from around the world". U.S. News. Associated Press. Retrieved October 1, 2023.
  481. ^ Carlson, Adam (October 15, 2019). "Jimmy Carter: Why I Chose Habitat and How I Keep Going". People. Archived from the original on March 5, 2023. Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  482. ^ "President Carter Talks of Funeral Plans". Deseret News. Associated Press. December 4, 2006. Archived from the original on March 2, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
  483. ^ "Polls: Ford's Image Improved Over Time". CBS News. December 27, 2006. Archived from the original on September 8, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  484. ^ a b "Jimmy Carter:39th president – 1977–1981". The Independent. London. January 22, 2009. Archived from the original on February 23, 2021. Retrieved January 28, 2009.
  485. ^ Dionne, E. J. (May 18, 1989). "Washington Talk; Carter Begins to Shed Negative Public Image". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2009.
  486. ^ "The Unfinished Presidency – Jimmy Carter's Journey Beyond the White House". The New York Times. 1998. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  487. ^ "What History Foretells for Obama's First Job Approval Rating". Gallup.com. January 22, 2009. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  488. ^ "Bush Presidency Closes With 34% Approval, 61% Disapproval". Gallup.com. Archived from the original on January 19, 2009. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  489. ^ Stillwell, Cinnamon (December 12, 2006). "Jimmy Carter's Legacy of Failure". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on July 17, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  490. ^ "Jimmy Carter: Why He Failed". Brookings Institution. January 21, 2000. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  491. ^ Ponnuru, Ramesh (May 28, 2008). "In Carter's Shadow". Time. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  492. ^ a b "Jimmy Carter's Post-Presidency". American Experience. PBS, WGBH. Archived from the original on May 6, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  493. ^ a b Brinkley, pp. 505–530.
  494. ^ Gibb, Lindsay (June 4, 2009). "Monte-Carlo TV fest opens with doc for first time". Archived from the original on March 26, 2014. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  495. ^ "WorldScreen.com – Archives". worldscreen.com. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  496. ^ Applebome, Peter (May 30, 1993). "Carter Center: More Than the Past". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 5, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  497. ^ Parker, Najja (May 9, 2018). "Guide to visiting Jimmy Carter Historical Park in Plains, Georgia". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on July 8, 2023. Retrieved July 8, 2023.
  498. ^ Jones, Alex (January 15, 2021). "Jimmy Carter historic sites become national historic park". WTVM. Archived from the original on July 8, 2023. Retrieved July 8, 2023.
  499. ^ "PBK – Phi Beta Kappa Presidents". pbk.org. Archived from the original on November 18, 2020. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
  500. ^ "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved April 14, 2022.
  501. ^ McIntyre, Jamie (April 8, 1998). "Navy to name submarine after former president Jimmy Carter". CNN. Archived from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  502. ^ "HR Prize – List of previous recipients". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  503. ^ "James Earl Carter Jr 1998 – ASME". Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
  504. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize for 2002 to Jimmy Carter" (Press release). Nobel Foundation. October 11, 2002. Archived from the original on July 1, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  505. ^ "Jimmy Carter wins Nobel Peace Prize". CNN. October 11, 2002. Archived from the original on November 21, 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  506. ^ "Jimmy Carter Regional Airport Becomes a Reality". Fox News. Associated Press. October 11, 2009. Archived from the original on July 7, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  507. ^ Gregory Krieg (February 15, 2016). "Former President Jimmy Carter wins Grammy Award". CNN. Archived from the original on September 24, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  508. ^ Leeds, Jeff; Manly, Lorne (February 12, 2007). "Defiant Dixie Chicks Are Big Winners at the Grammys". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  509. ^ Judy Kurtz, Jimmy Carter up for another Grammy , The Hill (December 7, 2015).
  510. ^ Karanth, Sanjana (February 11, 2019). "Jimmy Carter Wins 2019 Grammy Award For Spoken Word Album". HuffPost. Archived from the original on February 12, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  511. ^ "Jimmy Carter becomes first president to live to see White House ornament honoring his legacy", Associated Press, February 21, 2024

General sources

Further reading

Primary sources

  • Carter, Jimmy. Why not the best? (1977) online.
  • Carter, Jimmy. Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President (1982) excerpt
  • Carter, Jimmy. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Jimmy Carter, 1977 (1978–1981); annual compilation of all his public documents
  • Carter, Jimmy. An Hour Before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood (2001) excerpt
  • Carter, Jimmy. The Nobel Peace Prize lecture : delivered in Oslo on December 10, 2002 (2002) online
  • Carter, Jimmy. Negotiation (2003) excerpt
  • Carter, Jimmy. Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis (2005) excerpt
  • Carter, Jimmy. Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid (2006) online
  • Carter, Jimmy. Beyond the White House : waging peace, fighting disease, building hope (2007) online
  • Carter, Jimmy. White House diary (2011) online
  • Carter, Jimmy. A Full Life: Reflections at Ninety (2015) online
  • Califano, Joseph A. Jr. (2007) . Governing America: An Insider's Report from the White House and the Cabinet. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-5211-6.
  • Jordan, Hamilton (1982). Crisis: The Last Year of the Carter Presidency. Putnam. ISBN 978-0-399-12738-0.
  • Lance, Bert (1991). The Truth of the Matter: My Life In and Out of Politics. Summit. ISBN 978-0-671-69027-4.

External links